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Research Guides

Good British Stock: Child and Youth Migration to Australia

Appendix 2: Who was who in juvenile migration

Amery, L S (1873–1955)

Imperialist writer and politician: born India, the son of a civil servant attached to the Forestry Department, he was educated at Harrow and Oxford. Barrister; conservative member of parliament for a Birmingham constituency, 1911–45. He was in South Africa during the Boer War and served during World War I before joining the cabinet secretariat in 1916. He served as Secretary of State for the Dominions, 1924–29, and was the principal architect of the Empire Settlement Act 1922.

Arthur, R (1865–1932)

Arthur was born at Aldershot, England in 1865 and graduated as a physician from the universities of St Andrews and Edinburgh. He emigrated to New South Wales in 1891, a man of ideas and causes. He sat in the New South Wales parliament from 1904 to 1932. He supported migration and close settlement and was the founding president of the Immigration League of Australia in 1905. He was one of those who founded the 'Dreadnought Scheme' in 1911 and was an early supporter of the Big Brother Movement. He was Minister for Health, 1927–30, in the Government of Sir Thomas Bavin.

Booth, Mary (1869–1956)

Physician and welfare worker: born Burwood, Sydney; graduated University of Sydney, 1890; governess to the children of the Governor of New South Wales, the Earl of Jersey, 1891–93. In 1899 graduated in Medicine at the University of Edinburgh. Independent means; feminist; Vice-President National Council of Women (NSW). In 1915 established a 'Soldiers Club' in the Royal Hotel for the duration of the war. In 1921 became President of the ANZAC Fellowship of Women (until 1956) and moved into migrant welfare, committed to bringing migrants – 'our own British stock' – to Australia. Involved especially in after-care of young men brought to Australia by the Dreadnought Trust and the Big Brother Movement; edited The Boy Settler for their benefit.

Calwell, A (1896–1973)

Civil servant and politician: born in West Melbourne and attended the Christian Brothers College near his home; entered the Victorian Public Service in 1913. By 1911 he had already joined the Labor Party and held a range of elected positions within the party. Calwell represented the Melbourne constituency in the Federal parliament from 1940 to 1973. He served as Minister for Information in the last two years of World War II; Minister for Immigration 1945–49; and was completely committed to the 'Populate or Perish' policy in immigration – as well as 'white Australia'. Calwell saw child and youth migration as vital parts of the overall migrant intake. He expanded Australia's traditional immigration base beyond the British Isles to southern and eastern Europe.

Conlon, Brother A (1875–1957)

Louis Conlon was born in County Westmeath, Ireland, 1875 – his father was a National School teacher – and commenced training for the Christian Brothers in 1891. He was sent on the Australian mission as a young man and spent 17 years teaching (later Headmaster) at Waverley College, Sydney. In 1928, he came to Western Australia as principal of the Brothers College, St George's Terrace and was, therefore, aware of the Tardun scheme and plans for Catholic child migration from an early stage. By 1930, he was a member of the Brothers executive but over the next 20 years spent much of his time and energy establishing the Agricultural College at Tardun on a firm basis and arranging child migration to Catholic institutions in Western Australia.

Fairbridge, Kingsley (1885–1924)

The founder of the Fairbridge Society was born in 1885 at Grahamstown, Cape Colony in South Africa. In 1909 while at Oxford studying forestry, Fairbridge outlined his child migration vision to a meeting of fellow Rhodes Scholars, and those present formed the Child Emigration Society, later known as the Fairbridge Society. In 1911, Fairbridge met the Premier of Western Australia who offered land near Perth on which to commence his social experiment, and in January 1913 the first party of children arrived at Fremantle from England. In 1919, Kingsley went to London to rekindle enthusiasm for his scheme, and gained British Government support to purchase a property near Pinjarra and develop its facilities, as well as weekly allowances for each child from the Commonwealth and State Governments. By 1924, the year Fairbridge died, cottage homes for 200 children had been built, as well as a school, staffed by the Western Australian Government.

Garland, D J (1864–1939)

Clergyman, Church of England: born Dublin, Ireland, the son of a librarian, migrated to New South Wales as a child with his family; 1889 entered the ministry. In Perth, 1892–1902 he held various senior positions in the church, since he was extremely energetic and had a flair for organisation, but in 1902 moved to Charters Towers, Queensland as rector. World War I army chaplain, Middle East. He was Director of Immigration for the Anglican Church in Queensland 1911–33 and President of the New Settlers League from 1926. In these positions he encouraged juvenile migration to Queensland and was prominent in migrant welfare.

Keaney, Brother Paul (1888–1954)

Francis Keaney was born at Rossiniver, County Leitrim in 1888, into a poor farming family. In 1909 he joined the Royal Irish Constabulary where he spent three uneventful years, then resigned to emigrate to Australia. After a variety of jobs, in 1915 he joined the Queensland Police Force. A year later he had entered the Christian Brothers and after training was posted to Clontarf orphanage near Perth. Over the next thirty years he became a Western Australian identity for his work in child care, first at Clontarf orphanage, then in pioneering work at Tardun and later at St Joseph's Farm and Trade School, Bindoon. He was associated with massive building projects, planned by his friend, Father Urbano of the Benedictine abbey at New Norcia, and carried out by the boys and some of the Brothers. He was lauded at the time as 'The Man in a Million' and 'The Orphan's Friend', before and after his sudden death in 1954. In the last ten years, he has appeared as a much more controversial figure.

Linton, (Sir) Richard (1879–1959)

Businessman, politician, philanthropist: born Palmerston North, New Zealand and arrived in Sydney in 1899. Over time Linton's main business activities were in Melbourne and in 1927, he entered the Victorian Legislative Assembly as the Nationalist member for Boroondara. Meanwhile in 1924, he had founded the Big Brother Movement, the idea for which grew out of his own experience of arriving in Sydney as a young man knowing that his elder brother was already there to assist him. The movement encouraged young men to emigrate to Australia knowing that there was an established citizen to whom they could look for some support. In 1933 he was appointed Victoria's Agent-General in London and he remained involved in public life for many years.

Rickard, (Sir) Arthur (1868–1948)

Businessman, real estate developer, philanthropist: born Currawong, NSW and moved to Sydney as a young man to seek his fortune. After achieving this goal, he was the foundation president, 1912 to 1948 of the Millions Club (Sydney) established in the belief that accelerated British migration would make Sydney the first Australian city to reach one million inhabitants. In the 1920s, Rickard was active on the executives of many organisations which fostered immigration to the state, especially juvenile migration: the New Settlers League, the Big Brother Movement, Dr Barnardo's Homes and the British Empire League. It was the Millions Club which sponsored the arrival of Barnardo's Homes in Sydney in 1921. In 1926, he was a member of the Australian delegation to the League of Nations General Assembly. Rickard's work for youth migration continued for the rest of his life and he was President of the Big Brother Movement at the time of his death.