The Australian economy in 1942–45 was regulated to a greater degree than at any other time in the country's history. Some controls had been introduced early in the war, such as controls over prices, exports, imports, capital issues and employment. The shift to a total war economy took place soon after Japan entered the war. On 10 February 1942 John Curtin announced the New Economic Plan, embodied in the National Security (Economic Organisation) Regulations: 'The plan involves government direction of industry and trade so that the production of war materials will be speeded up; the manpower of the community mobilised in the interests of the nation, and the incomes of all sections of the community equitably controlled'.
Hundreds of regulations issued under the 1939–40 National Security Act covered an extraordinary range of subject matter: the production of food, land use, the marketing of primary products and the zoning of food deliveries; the production of coal and minerals; the supply of metals, timber, rubber, petroleum products and other raw materials; building construction, new manufactures, imports and exports, investment, prices, wages, profits and interest; transactions in land and shares; the transport of goods and passengers; the allocation and distribution of labour, the protection of essential occupations and undertakings, and the employment of women; and the consumption of petrol, clothing and certain foodstuffs. The bulk of national resources were devoted to the war effort and private consumption fell from about 70 to 40 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP).
In 1943 Noel Butlin and other officers of the Department of Post War Reconstruction began to consider the question of transitional controls. In March 1944 JG Crawford argued that the direct control of workforce resources should continue up to the end of the war, while controls over the allocation of scarce materials, prices, investment, imports and exchange should continue into the transitional period. Later in the year, Gerald Firth made a study of controls while drafting the White Paper on Full Employment. He predicted that the continuation of controls would be unpopular and proposed the abolition of all unnecessary controls. The controls retained in the transitional period should ensure the planned allocation of resources, promote high employment and receive public support. Using these criteria, he suggested that rationing and controls over prices, investment and overseas trade should continue. The final version of the White Paper (May 1945) pointed to the need to continue five forms of control in the early post-war period: price control, trade and monetary controls, control of building materials, capital issues control, and marketing arrangements for primary products.
In September 1943 the Production Executive set up an inter-departmental committee on the application and removal of controls. The committee, however, did not consider the general policy on the removal of controls and simply left it to administering authorities to initiate the removal of redundant controls. Only in March 1945 did John Dedman write to Curtin proposing a detailed examination of all controls, the preparation of a schedule under which they would be relaxed, and the identification of controls that would need to be retained after the expiry of the National Security Act. In May Curtin directed all departments and authorities to review and report on the controls that they administered, including any administrative problems and repercussions that might arise if they were revoked.
The sudden termination of hostilities in August 1945 ended the leisurely approach to 'decontrol' and there was a rush to abandon controls and revert to a market economy. At a meeting summoned by Dedman on 14 August 1945, officers discussed planning for the gradual reduction of production in government factories to ensure that serious dislocation and unemployment did not arise from closures. They agreed that there was a continued need for food and clothes rationing; liquid fuel control; the control of rubber, tinplate, jute and other scarce products; and arrangements for orderly marketing of certain primary products. Three days later Dedman recommended to the War Cabinet that the examination of remaining controls be expedited and that the premiers be informed of those controls that would be needed for a longer period. The War Cabinet approved of the immediate relaxation of more than 100 controls that departments had considered could be revoked at the end of the war.
In the next two months a much larger number of controls were abandoned, mostly on the recommendation of administering departments. Many of them could no longer be enforced effectively. They included the zoning of milk and bread deliveries, orders controlling the production of clothing and electrical appliances, control of many essential materials, orders relating to the engagement of labour, and regulations on holidays and annual leave. The civilian register was abolished and workforce restrictions no longer applied to many industries. Building control orders were revised and permits were no longer required to begin manufacturing operations. By the end of October 1945 about 300 controls still remained in force. Some of them covered the allocation of rare commodities, while others were retained until state legislation was passed or certain formalities were completed. Most were revoked by early 1946. The government considered that the remaining controls, especially the 'White Paper controls', were needed for a longer period in order to maintain economic stability and high employment, and to ensure that the housing program was implemented.
The National Security Act was due to expire six months after the end of the war, but there was uncertainty about whether the phrase 'ceased to be engaged in war' referred to the date of the Japanese surrender or a subsequent peace treaty. In April 1946 Chifley announced that the Act would expire on 31 December 1946 and that legislation would be introduced under the defence power to maintain anti-inflationary controls. The Defence (Transitional Provisions) Act 1946 extended for a year Commonwealth control over prices, rents, interest rates, capital issues and marketing arrangements, as well as covering many subsidiary regulations. In August 1947 Chifley reported to Cabinet that a survey had shown that about a third of the remaining wartime regulations could be repealed. Nevertheless, there were continued shortages of essential commodities such as particular foodstuffs, superphosphate and tractors. War damage claims had not yet been disposed of, general inflationary conditions remained a matter of concern, and control over economic conditions generally would need to be maintained. The Defence (Transitional Provisions) Act was therefore extended in 1947, 1948 and 1949, even though there were warnings that many of the remaining regulations could no longer be upheld under the defence power.
As soon as the war ended, trade unions and workers generally demanded an end to wage-pegging or, failing that, an increased basic wage and a shorter working week. The government, in an effort to block immediate wage increases, supported inquiries on the basic wage and the working week. In December 1946 the Arbitration Court granted an 'interim' increase in the basic wage. In the same month wage-pegging regulations were relaxed, with industrial authorities allowed to consider post-war cost of living increases when reviewing margins. Wage-pegging virtually came to an end in October 1947, following the proclamation of the Conciliation and Arbitration Act 1947.
Rising wages forced the government to review its price stabilisation policy and the subsidies which maintained the 1943 prices ceiling. In August 1945 the premiers had agreed that price control should continue for at least three years after the expiry of the National Security Act, with the states temporarily referring powers to the Commonwealth. However, attempts to secure uniform legislation failed. In 1947 all the states passed Economic Stability Acts, but with very limited duration. Some commodities were released from price control in 1947, but the government believed that price control generally should continue if inflation was to be controlled. The defeat of the prices and rents referendum on 29 May 1948 (see chapter 3) led to a major shift towards a free market economy. Three days after the referendum, Cabinet decided to relinquish rent control within two months and price control and land sale control within three months. The states would be invited to assume responsibility for these controls. Cabinet later agreed that subsidies should be discontinued for a range of commodities, but retained them for tea, butter, cheese, superphosphate, nitrogenous fertiliser and coal.
In October 1946 the Rationing Commission recommended that rationing of clothes, tea, butter and meat should be continued, but sugar rationing be abolished. Cabinet temporised, owing to concern about depleted sugar stocks in Britain, but sugar rationing ended in July 1947. On 15 June 1948 Cabinet decided that rationing of meat and clothing should cease immediately, while the rationing of petrol, tea and butter should be retained. Despite widespread opposition, the need to reduce dollar imports ensured that petrol rationing continued until June 1949, when the High Court held that the regulations were no longer valid. Chaos followed and the premiers were urged to take action, but could not reach agreement. Eventually, they referred the necessary power to the Commonwealth for one year and petrol rationing was resumed on 15 November 1949. It coincided with the beginning of the federal election campaign and petrol rationing became one of the major factors in the defeat of the Chifley government. On 8 February 1950 the new Prime Minister, RG Menzies, declared that petrol would no longer be rationed, despite the opposition of the British government. At its last meeting in June 1950 the Rationing Commission proposed the abolition of tea and butter rationing, mainly because of the difficulties of enforcement. By this time, the Commonwealth had relinquished control of all building materials and capital issues control had also been abolished. The transitional period had come to an end.
|WAR CABINET AGENDA AND MINUTES, 1939–46
|Relaxation and maintenance of controls, 17 August 1945||349/1945|
|Relaxation of manpower controls: cessation of Pacific War, 17 August 1945||376/1945|
|CURTIN, FORDE AND CHIFLEY MINISTRIES: CABINET MINUTES AND AGENDA, 1941–49
|National Security (Land Transfer) Regulations: proposed lifting of restrictions, 19 February 1945||778|
|Petrol rationing, 30 July 1945||893|
|Petrol rationing, 27 August 1945||893A|
|Petrol rationing, 30 October 1945||893B|
|Petrol rationing, 18 January 1946||893C|
|Petrol supply position, 15 August 1947||893E|
|Transfer of labour from war production, 11 September 1945||931|
|Transfer of labour from war production, 30 October 1945||931 supp.|
|Relaxation of manpower controls: civilian register, 30 October 1945||969|
|Relaxation of manpower controls: cessation of Pacific War, 30 October 1945||970|
|Relaxation of controls, 10 January 1946||1036|
|Relaxation of controls, 26 March 1946||1036A|
|Termination of war production, 7 February 1946||1056|
|Rationing of sugar, 4 March 1946||1085|
|Controls, 4–5 March 1946||1103|
|Duration of National Security Act, 3 April 1946||1133|
|Legislation necessary on account of termination of National Security Act, 12 November 1946||1133A|
|Defence (Transitional Provisions) Act 1946, 2 July 1947||1133B|
|Defence (Transitional Provisions) Act after the end of 1947, 15 August 1947||1133C|
|Commonwealth controls other than prices, rents etc., 1 June 1948||1133E|
|Continuance of rationing controls, 12 November 1946||1257|
|Sugar rationing, 2 July 1947||1257B|
|Clothes rationing, 2 July 1947||1257C|
|Meat rationing, 2 July 1947||1257D|
|Tea and butter rationing, 30 August 1948||1257E|
|The future of price control, 3 July 1947||1359|
|Price control, 2 June 1948||1359B|
|Subsidies, prices and rationing, 15 June 1948||1469A|
|Home consumption price schemes, 28 June 1948||1489|
|Petrol, 28 June 1949||1493C|
|Petrol rationing, 5 October 1949||1493D|
|Rationing of tea, butter and petrol, 2 August 1948||1506|
|PRODUCTION EXECUTIVE AGENDA, 1941–45
JJ Dedman. Application and removal of controls, 11 September 1943
|5/1942 Supp. 1|
JJ Dedman. Relaxation of controls, 31 May 1945
JJ Dedman. Relaxation of controls, 31 July 1945
|53/1945 Supp. 1|
JJ Dedman. Relaxation of controls, 31 July 1945
|53/1945 Supp. 2|
JJ Dedman. Relaxation of controls, 3 September 1945
|53/1945 Supp. 3|
JJ Dedman. Relaxation of controls, 26 October 1945
|53/1945 Supp. 4|
JJ Dedman. Transfer from war to civil production, 28 August 1945
|CHIFLEY MINISTRY: WORKING PAPERS OF CABINET SUB-COMMITTEES, 1945–49
|Cabinet Sub-Committee on Petrol Rationing, 1948
Report of a conference (21–23 July 1948) of Liquid Fuel Board officers, reports of meetings (July–August 1948) of the Cabinet Sub-Committee on Petrol Rationing, chaired by WP Ashley, draft Cabinet papers, and related correspondence.
|Continuance of price control after expiry of the National Security Act, 1945–48
A memorandum (August 1945) by KH Bailey on the constitutional aspects of price control in the transition from war to peace and correspondence on the difficulties of securing uniform legislation by the states in support of Commonwealth economic controls. The correspondents include KH Bailey, AS Brown, P Kewish and ME McCarthy.
|Department of Labour and National Service|
|GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE OF THE SECRETARIAT, 1940–50
|Relaxation of controls, 1945
List of controls revoked or relaxed since 1 July 1945 and controls still in force on 14 November 1945, compiled by the Department of Post War Reconstruction.
|Interdepartmental committees: control and relaxation of supplies, 1942–45
Minutes of meetings (March–April 1942) of the Inter-Departmental Committee on the Imposition and Relaxation of Controls and related correspondence and minutes. The correspondents include R Wilson, GT Chippindall and DV Youngman.
|Department of Post War Reconstruction|
|COPY OF MINISTRY OF POST WAR RECONSTRUCTION SURVEY OF WARTIME CONTROLS, 1945
|Ministry of Post War Reconstruction survey of wartime controls, 1945
Survey of wartime controls in operation on 31 January 1945, comprising a chronological list of controls (1939–44) and summaries of the 230 controls.
|CORRESPONDENCE FILES OF THE ECONOMIC POLICY DIVISION, 1942–50
|IDC on Prices and Subsidies, 1947–48
Correspondence, minutes, memoranda and notes on the future of Commonwealth controls, subsidies and rationing, and the transfer of price control to the states. The correspondents include HC Coombs, EJ Bunting, CL Hewitt, PW Nette and NF Stuart.
|Discussions on post-war prices policy, 1943–47
Reports on price stabilisation and correspondence on post-war price control and the 1948 referendum on rents and prices. The correspondents include DB Copland, HC Coombs, BW Hartnell, RI Downing and AS Brown.
|Petroleum: dollar import program, 1948–50 (3 parts)
Reports and correspondence on import policy in relation to petroleum products, quotas, petrol rationing and a review of the Australian petroleum industry. The correspondents include JB Chifley, LF Crisp, EJ Bunting, JJ Sheils, FH Wheeler and PW Nette.
|Import policy, 1945–50
Correspondence concerning the lifting of controls, import licensing policy and administration. The correspondents include AH Tange, EJ Bunting, FH Wheeler, JJ Kennedy and J Fletcher.
|CORRESPONDENCE FILES, 1941–50
|Relaxation of wartime controls, 1941–45
List of controls for revocation or retention and correspondence concerning post-war controls. The correspondents include HC Coombs, GG Firth, NG Butlin, BW Hartnell, GT Chippindall and JK Jensen.
|1943/401 Pt 1|
Correspondence about pre-war consumption and prices and the determination of a standard price for petrol. The correspondents include GG Firth, PR Judd and A Date.
|Price stabilisation, 1945–47 (3 parts)
Proceedings of the premiers conference (20 August 1945) relating to price control and correspondence and memoranda on the price stabilisation scheme, efficiency investigations, and income subsidies and rulings. The correspondents include HC Coombs, J Beckett, C Tempony and T Hubner.
|Commonwealth Disposals Commission, 1944–46 (3 parts)
Correspondence concerning representation on the Commonwealth Disposals Commission (which began in September 1944), methods used in the disposal of goods, disposal of army buildings, camps and stores, economic effects of the sale of surplus stocks, and listing of materials required for reconstruction purposes. The correspondents included HC Coombs, GG Firth, PA Dorrian, GA Davis and FR Sinclair.
|Import controls, 1944–47
Correspondence and memoranda on import policy and import controls. The correspondents include AH Tange, BW Hartnell, GG Firth, JJ Kennedy and JF Nimmo.
|CORRESPONDENCE FILES OF THE SECONDARY INDUSTRIES DIVISION, 1943–49
|Wartime controls: relaxation, 1944–45
Lists of controls, correspondence, memoranda and minutes on planning for the relaxation of controls, concerns of the Secondary Industries Commission, overseas developments, the responses of departments, and the post-war use of government factories. The correspondents include JJ Dedman, HC Coombs, JG Crawford, GG Firth, BW Hartnell and JL Knott.
|Department of Trade and Customs|
|PAPERS RELATING TO POST WAR ECONOMIC MATTERS, 1927–56
|Import licensing controls, 1945–52
Correspondence concerning the maintenance or relaxation of import controls in the post-war period and administrative machinery to deal with applications for import licences for capital machinery. The correspondents include RV Keane, JB Chifley and JK Jensen.
|Imports of petrol, 1949
Includes a letter (6 January 1949) from RG Robertson to A Fitzgerald with details of crude oil, motor spirit, kerosene, diesel oil and aviation gas imported to Australia in 1947–48.
|GENERAL PAPERS OF THE DIVISION OF IMPORT PROCUREMENT, 1921–49
Correspondence, newspaper cuttings, publications and other records of the Division of Import Procurement, which was set up in December 1941 and disbanded in 1949.Series: A10207
|Petroleum products, 1943–47||K11B|
|Petroleum products, 1945–49||K11C|
|Motor vehicles, 1942–46||LL10|
|CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO THE CONTROL OF NEWSPRINT, 1942–51
Correspondence files of the Central Office relating mainly to the activities of the Newsprint Control Office, which controlled the supply and consumption of newsprint from 1940 to 1949, when rationing of newsprint came to an end.Series: A11751
|Paper control other than newsprint: relaxations, 1944–46||4|
|Relaxation of wartime controls, 1945–46||7|
|Newsprint: restorations on and after 1 December 1945, 1945–47||20|
|Australian Newspaper Council: deputation to Prime Minister, 26 April 1948||118|
|Department of War Organisation and Industry|
|CORRESPONDENCE FILES WITH S (SECRET) PREFIX, 1943–47
|Relaxation of controls, 1944–45
Production Executive papers and correspondence on the relaxation of controls by the Ministry of Munitions. Correspondents include GT Chippindall, JK Jensen and RJ Attkins.
|SECRET CORRESPONDENCE (S SERIES), 1940–46
|Import policy, 1944–45
Correspondence, minutes and notes on the relaxation of import controls, import replacement, and the effect of import licensing on secondary industries. The correspondents include GT Chippindall, EJB Foxcroft, TV Maher, VD Watson and AL Moore.
|Import policy, 1944–45
Correspondence on the proposed relaxation of import licensing and its effect on Australian industry. The correspondents include HC Coombs, HP Breen and BW Hartnell.
|Direct prohibitions and restrictions on export, 1945
Correspondence on the likely effects of the removal or relaxation of export controls, referring to the views of RV Keane and DB Copland. The correspondents include GT Chippindall, JK Jensen and PD Kewish.
|Directorate of Manpower|
|CORRESPONDENCE FILES, 1942–46
|Relaxation of manpower controls on cessation of Pacific War, 1945–46 (2 parts)
War Cabinet and Production Executive submissions, minutes of conferences with employers and trade unions, correspondence, minutes and statistical tables concerning the abolition of the civilian register, civilian identity cards, controls on the engagement of labour, protection policy, regulations administered by the Manpower Directorate, and parliamentary questions. The correspondents include EJ Holloway, JB Chifley, W Funnell and R Wilson.
|Transfer from war to civil production, 1945
Cabinet papers, reports of the War Commitments Committee, correspondence, minutes and statistical tables on the effects on employment of the transition from war to civil production, retrenchments in the Department of Aircraft Production, the release of personnel from government factories, and the employment situation in various towns. The correspondents include W Funnell, E Hogan and HC Coombs.
|Price Stabilisation Committee|
|AGENDA, MINUTES, CORRESPONDENCE AND REFERENCE MATERIAL, 1943–46
The Price Stabilisation Committee was set up in February 1943 and consisted of the Prices Commissioner (DB Copland), the Director-General of the Department of War Organisation of Industry (GT Chippindall) and the Secretary to the Treasury (SG McFarlane), or their deputies.Series: A12175
|Capital versus consumer goods, 1943||18|
|Basic wage: interim inquiry, 1946||24|
|Efficiency investigations, 1945||36|
|Minutes of meetings of Price Stabilisation Committee, 1944–46||43-50|
|Prime Minister's Department|
|CORRESPONDENCE FILES, 1934–50
|Rent and price control: transfer of administration to states, 1948–49
Proceedings of a conference (21–22 June 1948) of Commonwealth and state ministers on the transfer of controls over rents, prices and land sales and correspondence between JB Chifley and state premiers on the surrender of rent control by the Commonwealth, state legislation to control rents, and prosecutions for breaches of landlord and tenant regulations.
|Price control: general, 1946–47
Correspondence from individuals and organisations on the prices of particular materials and products, including primary products, with replies drafted by the Commonwealth Prices Branch and the Department of Trade and Customs.
|B344/1/19 Pt 1|
|Price control: petrol, 1945–50
Parliamentary questions and correspondence from individuals and organisations on petrol prices, proposals to standardise prices and concessions.
|Rationing of petrol: general representations, 1942–50 (2 parts)
Parliamentary questions and letters to J Curtin and JB Chifley from organisations and individuals dealing with the effects of petrol rationing on primary producers, fuel licences for farm machinery, cuts in petrol allowances and related subjects. The replies were generally drafted by the Department of Shipping and Fuel and the Department of Trade and Customs.
|HISTORY OF THE COMMONWEALTH RATIONING COMMISSION, 1942–50
|History of the Rationing Commission, 1942–50
Official history of the Commonwealth Rationing Commission dealing in particular with the establishment, administration, problems and cessation of rationing of clothing, tea, butter and meat.
|GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE FILES, 1942–50
General correspondence of the Central Administration of the Rationing Commission, covering policy matters, staffing and organisation, procedures, case files, breaches of Rationing Regulations, rationing in other countries, problems associated with rationing, and the winding down of rationing. The National Security (Rationing) Regulations were repealed in November 1950.Series: B5661
|Requests that tea and sugar rationing be discontinued, 1943–44||1943/1353|
|Investigation of petrol rationing system, 1942–50||1944/2121|
|Representations on food rationing, 1946–48||1946/456|
|Tea rationing, 1948–49||1948/339|
|Cessation of meat and clothing rationing, 1948||1948/483|
|Representations re butter rationing, 1948–50||1948/700|
|Cessation of Rationing Commission, 1950||1950/49|
|CORRESPONDENCE FILES, 1901–76
|Relaxation of controls, 1942–45
War Cabinet and Production Executive papers and correspondence on a review of wartime controls, including national security regulations administered by Treasury and the Taxation Office and controls on interest rates, capital issues and exchange controls. The correspondents include JB Chifley, JJ Dedman, HC Coombs, FH Wheeler and HT Armitage.
|1943/3205 Pt 1|
|Australian post war reconstruction, 1945
Correspondence concerning a paper (April 1945) by WE Dunk on the diversion of wartime industry to civil production and a letter from JJ Dedman to J Curtin on changes in economic policy following the defeat of Germany. The correspondents include JJ Dedman, WE Dunk, FH Wheeler and TW Swan.
|Transfer from war to civil production, 1945–46
A paper (13 August 1945) by WE Dunk on the transition from war to peace, a report of an inter-departmental conference (14 August 1945), chaired by HC Coombs, on the transfer from war to civil production and correspondence on the termination of war contracts and the transfer of labour to civil production. The correspondents include HC Coombs, SG McFarlane, FH Wheeler and GPN Watt.
|CORRESPONDENCE OF JB CHIFLEY AS PRIME MINISTER, 1945–49
|Correspondence, P, part 3, 1945–46
Includes a letter (13 June 1946) from JJ Dedman to JB Chifley on breaches of wage-pegging regulations and the question whether price control should continue after the expiry of the National Security Act.
|CORRESPONDENCE OF JB CHIFLEY ON PORTFOLIO MATTERS, 1945–49
|Shipping and Fuel, 1948–49
Includes letters from WP Ashley to JB Chifley on the petrol situation in Australia and responses to representations on petrol rationing and the allocation of petrol to particular places or industries.
|Trade and Customs, 1947–49
Includes letters from B Courtice and FA Meere to JB Chifley in response to representations from companies and individuals, particularly referring to restrictions on imports of newsprint.
|SUBJECT FILES OF JB CHIFLEY, 1945–49
|Petrol file, 1949
Representations (October–November 1949) to JB Chifley from individuals, shire councils, producer organisations, chambers of commerce, businesses and parliamentarians concerning petrol shortages and the administration of petrol rationing.
|Sir Douglas Copland|
|RECORDS OF THE ECONOMIC CONSULTANT (RECONSTRUCTION), 1940–45
|Reconstruction: controls after the War, 1945
Draft prime ministerial statements and memoranda by Copland on liquidating price control after the war and related topics, and letters (29 May 1945, 31 July 1945) from Copland to JB Chifley on the transition to peace and the continuation of price control in the United States and Canada.
|Reconstruction: price control, 1940–44
Includes a memorandum (6 June 1941) on post-war policy with special reference to price control and a paper (25 August 1944) on price control and priorities.
|Reconstruction: review of economic controls, 1945
Production Executive submissions, correspondence and memoranda by WE Dunk and DB Copland on a review of the direct war effort and the relaxation of control. The correspondents include JB Chifley, JJ Dedman and GG Firth.
|RECORDS OF THE ECONOMIC CONSULTANT (RECONSTRUCTION), 1940–45
|Transition from war to peace, 1944
Includes an address (15 September 1944) by DB Copland to the Australian Economics Society on the place of economic controls in the transition from war to peace.
|Sir Frederick Shedden|
|SHEDDEN COLLECTION, 1937–71
|Relaxation and maintenance of controls, 1945
Prime ministerial statements, War Cabinet papers, and a letter (28 August 1945) from JB Chifley to JA Beasley on the replacement of non-official members on advisory committees dealing with wartime controls.
|Relaxation of manpower controls following the cessation of hostilities in the Pacific, 1945
Prime ministerial statements and War Cabinet papers.
|Removal of controls following cessation of hostilities, 1944–46
Newspaper cuttings from Sydney and Melbourne newspapers.
Butlin, SJ and Schedvin, CB, War Economy 1942–1945, Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 1977.
Spaull, Andrew, John Dedman: a most unexpected Labor man, Hyland House, Melbourne, 1998.
Walker, E Ronald, The Australian Economy in War and Reconstruction, Oxford University Press, New York, 1947.