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Malcolm Fraser: Guide to Archives of Australia's Prime Ministers


Appendix 2: Who's who


Anthony, John Douglas (Doug)

In 1957, Doug Anthony was elected to federal Parliament as the Member for Richmond (New South Wales) at a by-election that followed the death of his father. He retained Richmond at 11 subsequent general elections until his resignation in January 1984. He became Leader of the Country Party (1971–84) on the retirement of Sir John McEwen. The Country Party was renamed the National Party of Australia in October 1982 after a brief period as the National Country Party. Anthony was also Deputy Prime Minister (1971–72 and 1975–83) and acted as Prime Minister on several occasions, particularly during the Fraser government.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 55

Barwick, Sir Garfield Edward John

Sir Garfield Barwick was born in 1903. After studying law at the University of Sydney, he was admitted to the NSW Bar in 1927 and became President of the Law Council of Australia from 1952 to 1954. In 1958 he won the federal seat of Parramatta for the Liberal Party, which he held until 1964. During his time in the House of Representatives, he was made Attorney-General (1958–61) and Minister for External Affairs (1961–64). In 1964 he was appointed Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia. He was the first President of the Australian Conservation Foundation and advised then Governor-General Sir John Kerr on the constitutional legality of dismissing Gough Whitlam. He retired from the High Court in 1981 and died in 1997.

Battle, William C

William C Battle was born in 1920 in Virginia in the United States. He received a law degree from the University of Virginia and worked on John F Kennedy's presidential campaign. He was appointed US Ambassador to Australia in 1962, a post he held for two years. He and his wife were family friends of the Frasers.

Carmody, Sir Alan Thomas

Sir Alan Carmody was head of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet from 1976 to 1978, during the Fraser government.

Casey, Lord Richard Gardiner

Lord Casey was Governor-General of Australia (1965–69) during the governments of Robert Menzies, Harold Holt, John McEwen and John Gorton. Casey was a friend of the Fraser family. He was a United Australia Party MHR from 1931 to 1940 (Corio) and a Liberal MHR from 1949 to 1960 (La Trobe). He held portfolios in the Menzies governments during the 1950s, when Fraser was a backbencher.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 24

Chipp, Donald (Don) Leslie

Don Chipp was Liberal MHR for Higinbotham (Victoria) from 1960 to 1969, and for Hotham (Victoria) from 1969 until 1977. Chipp was a minister in successive Holt, Gorton and McMahon Liberal Coalition governments. After the dismissal of the Whitlam government in November 1975, he was appointed Minister for Social Security, Minister for Health, and Minister for Repatriation and Compensation in the Fraser caretaker government. Fraser did not appoint him to the Ministry after the December 1975 election, although Chipp later served on several parliamentary committees. In March 1977, Chipp resigned from the Liberal Party and became an Independent member. From May 1977 he was involved in the establishment of a third political party, later known as the Australian Democrats.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 121

Cole, Sir Robert William (Bill)

Sir Bill Cole held a number of senior government positions during the Fraser government. He was first Assistant Secretary to the Treasury (1972–76), Australian Statistician (1976), Secretary of the Department of Finance (1976–78), Chairman of the Public Service Board (1978–83) and Secretary of the Department of Defence (1983–86).

Coombs, Herbert (Nugget) Cole

Dr Nugget Coombs was Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia from January 1960 until his retirement in July 1968. He chaired the Australian Council of Aboriginal Affairs from 1968 to 1976 and headed the 1974–76 Royal Commission into Commonwealth Government Administration, which reported to the Fraser government. He also chaired the Australia Council for the Arts from 1968 to 1974 and the Australian Elizabethan Trust from 1954 to 1968, and held several academic positions. He was Deputy Chairman (later Pro-chancellor) of the Council of the Australian National University between 1952 and 1968, when he became Chancellor, and retired in 1976. He was economic adviser to several prime ministers.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 119

Court, Sir Charles Walter Michael

Sir Charles Court was born in England in 1911, emigrating with his parents to Perth when he was six years old. He qualified as an accountant and started his own practice in 1933. He joined the Liberal Party in 1946, and was elected to the state seat of Nedlands in 1953. He held the seat until his son, Richard, succeeded him in 1982, when Sir Charles retired. Court became Western Australian Premier in 1974 and held the position until his retirement in 1982. As Premier he was a fierce proponent of states' rights and an opponent of Aboriginal land rights, leading to tensions with the federal government.

Cowen, Sir Zelman

Sir Zelman Cowen was Australia's 19th Governor-General, from 1977 to 1982. He was appointed to the position by Fraser after Sir John Kerr resigned in December 1977. Cowen had a long distinguished career in law and academia, holding numerous positions both in Australia and overseas. He was Dean of the Law Faculty at the University of Melbourne (1951–66), Vice-chancellor at the University of New England (1966–70) and the University of Queensland (1970–77), and a visiting professor at various overseas universities. He was regarded as one of the leading constitutional lawyers in the English- speaking world. He was Provost of Oriel College, Oxford University for eight years and active in Jewish community affairs in Melbourne after his vice-regal appointment.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 335

Deane, Sir William Patrick

Sir William Deane was born in Melbourne in 1931. He graduated from Arts and Law at the University of Sydney, was appointed to the Bar in 1957 and made Queen's Council in 1966. He was appointed a Justice of the High Court by Fraser in 1982, after serving as a judge of the Federal Court. In 1996 he was sworn in as Governor-General, serving until his retirement in 2001. Deane succeeded Fraser as Chair of CARE Australia in 2002.

Eggleton, Anthony (Tony)

Tony Eggleton was born in 1932 and educated at King Alfred's College in the United Kingdom. By 1963, he helped found the National Press Club in Canberra. He was appointed press secretary to Robert Menzies in 1965, and remained in this position under succeeding Liberal prime ministers. Eggleton become Federal Director of the Liberal Party in 1975, a post he held for 15 years. He was the Liberal campaign director for each of Fraser's federal elections. He resigned in 1990 and took up a post as Secretary-General of CARE International (1991–95) and later Chief Executive of CARE Australia (1995–96).

Garland, Sir Ransley Victor

Sir Ransley Garland was born in 1934 and educated at the University of Western Australia, becoming a chartered accountant in 1958. He was Senior Vice-president of the Liberal and Country League of Western Australia and in 1969 was elected to the federal seat of Curtin, which he held until 1981. Under Fraser, Garland was appointed Minister Assisting the Treasurer and Minister for Post and Telecommunications. He resigned from the latter but was later appointed to a number of ministries, including Veterans' Affairs, Business and Consumer Affairs, and Special Trade Representations. He resigned from Parliament following the 1980 election.

Garnaut, Ross

Ross Garnaut served the Fraser government as a trade negotiator and in 1980 was Deputy Chair of the first Pacific Economic Conference (now the Asia-Pacific Economic Conference). From 1983 he was an influential economic adviser to Prime Minister Bob Hawke and was Australia's Ambassador to China from 1985 to 1988. He is Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Australian National University, a professorial fellow at the University of Melbourne, and has held a number of senior government appointments, including chairing Australia's Climate Change Review in 2008.

Georgiou, Petro

Petro Georgiou was born in 1947 and educated at the University of Melbourne. He was a senior adviser to Fraser from 1975 to 1979, when he was appointed to the Ethnic Television Review Panel and later Director of the Australian Institute of Multicultural Affairs in 1980. In 1994 he won the blue-ribbon Liberal seat of Kooyong (Victoria), which he held until his retirement in 2010. In 2006, as a Member of the House of Representatives, Georgiou crossed the floor to vote against a Liberal Party Bill allowing for the offshore processing of asylum seekers. He is a member of the Malcolm Fraser Collection reference group at the University of Melbourne Archives.

Gorton, Sir John Grey

Sir John Gorton was Australia's 19th Prime Minister, serving from 1968 to 1971. He was Liberal Party Senator for Victoria from 1950 to 1968, and MHR for Higgins from 1968 to 1975. He appointed Fraser as Minister for Education and Science after the October 1968 election. The following year he appointed Fraser as Minister for Defence. However, after several disagreements, Fraser resigned his portfolio, a move some saw as leading to Gorton's demise.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 136

Guilfoyle, Dame Margaret Georgina Constance

Dame Margaret Guilfoyle was elected to federal Parliament in 1970 as a Senator for Victoria and retained her seat until retiring from politics before the 1987 election. In the Fraser caretaker government, she was given the Education portfolio (November–December 1975), becoming the first woman to be appointed with portfolio to Cabinet and the second to serve as a federal Minister. She subsequently held other ministries in the Fraser government.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 417

Hayden, William George (Bill)

Bill Hayden was elected to the House of Representatives in 1961, representing the federal division of Oxley (Queensland). He held the seat for the Australian Labor Party through the next 11 general elections until his resignation in 1988. During the Whitlam government he was Minister for Social Security (1972–75) and Treasurer (June–November 1975). Hayden succeeded Whitlam as Leader of the Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition (1977–83). As a member of the Shadow Ministry during the Fraser government, he was spokesman on defence (1976–83), and defence and economic management (1977). He was replaced by Bob Hawke as leader a few weeks prior to the March 1983 general election, when Labor gained office. In February 1989, Bill Hayden was sworn in as Australia's 21st Governor-General.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 626

Hawke, Robert James Lee (Bob)

Bob Hawke was Australia's 23rd Prime Minister and the longest-serving Labor Prime Minister (1983–91). He came into office in March 1983 after a landslide election victory, defeating Fraser's government. Before office, Hawke was President of the Australian Council of Trade Unions for nearly 11 years (1969–80), successfully reforming the organisation and increasing its income and membership. He became a member of the National Executive of the Australian Labor Party in 1971 and was President from 1973 to 1978. In October 1980, he was elected to the House of Representatives as the Member for Wills. He immediately became a member of the Opposition Shadow Ministry and spokesman on industrial relations, employment and youth affairs (1980–83). In February 1983, he replaced Bill Hayden as Leader of the Opposition and led the party to victory in the March 1983 election. Under his leadership, Labor won three more elections.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 390

Holt, Harold Edward

Harold Holt was Australia's 17th Prime Minister, serving from January 1966 until December 1967, when he was pronounced dead following his disappearance at sea while swimming. He won his first seat in Parliament in 1935 as the Member for Fawkner (Victoria), representing the United Australia Party until 1944. That year he was a foundation member of the Liberal Party created under Robert Menzies. He represented Fawkner until 1949 and was subsequently the Member for Higgins from 1949 to 1967. In 1939, at the age of 30, Holt became Australia's youngest minister when Prime Minister Menzies allocated him a junior role. He spent 32 years in Parliament, mainly on the government benches, and held the senior portfolios of Immigration, and Labour and National Service, and was Treasurer before becoming Prime Minister in 1966. He appointed Fraser to his first Ministry, as Minister for the Army. When Holt disappeared, Fraser supported Gorton as Leader of the Liberal Party and Prime Minister.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 27

Howard, John Winston

John Howard was Australia's 25th Prime Minister, serving from March 1996 to December 2007. He was first elected to Parliament in 1974 as the Member for Bennelong (New South Wales), a seat he held until the defeat of his government in the 2007 election. In 1975 he became Minister for Business and Consumer Affairs in the coalition government of Malcolm Fraser and Doug Anthony. He became Treasurer in 1977 and held this portfolio until the Coalition lost office in 1983. Howard was Leader of the Opposition from 1985 to 1989, and again from 1995 until the Coalition won government at the 1996 federal election.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 197

Kemp, David Alistair

An active member of the Liberal Party from 1964, David Kemp was senior adviser to Malcolm Fraser when he was Leader of the Opposition and in his first year as Prime Minister (1975–76), director of his Private Office (1981) and strategy director of the Liberal Party in Victoria (1987–88). He later became a Liberal MHR from 1990 to 2004 (Goldstein), holding several ministries in the Howard government.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 690

Kerr, Sir John Robert

Sir John Kerr was Governor-General of Australia from 1974 until 1977. He dismissed Prime Minister Gough Whitlam on 11 November 1975 and installed Malcolm Fraser as caretaker Prime Minister. Before his vice-regal appointment, Kerr was a leading industrial lawyer in Sydney in the 1960s, and Chief Justice of New South Wales from 1972 to 1974.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 266

Killen, Sir James

Sir James Killen was elected as Liberal MHR for Moreton (Queensland) in 1955 and retained the seat through successive elections for nearly 28 years. During his parliamentary career, he held various ministries in the Gorton and Fraser governments, including Minister for the Navy (1969–71), Minister for Defence (1975–82) and Vice-president of the Executive Council (1982–83).

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 46

Lynch, Sir Phillip Reginald

Sir Phillip Lynch was elected to the House of Representatives as the Member for Flinders (Victoria) and served from 1966 to 1982. He held several ministries in the Gorton and McMahon governments. These included Minister for the Army (1968–69), Minister for Immigration (1969–71), Minister for Labour and National Service (1971–72), Treasurer (1975–77), Minister for Finance (1976–77), and Minister for Industry and Commerce (1977–82).

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 76

Macphee, Ian Malcolm

Ian Macphee was elected to the House of Representatives in 1974 as the Member for Balaclava (Victoria) and retained the seat for 10 years. Following the 1984 electoral redistribution, he was re-elected as the member for Goldstein (Victoria). He retired in 1990. In the Fraser government, Macphee held several ministries. After leaving federal politics, Macphee was a board member of CARE Australia (1992–97) under Fraser's chairmanship.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 306

McEwen, Sir John

John McEwen was Australia's 18th Prime Minister, serving from December 1967 until January 1968. A Country Party member, McEwen was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1934 as the Member for Echuca (Victoria) and subsequently was the Member for two other electorates: Indi and Murray. He served 37 years in Parliament, and from 1949 to 1971 held the key ministerial responsibilities of commerce and trade. He served as party leader from 1956 until 1971, and as Deputy Prime Minister for 12 years in the governments of Menzies, Holt and Gorton. After Holt's disappearance, he was commissioned as caretaker Prime Minister until the Liberal Party elected a new leader.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 47

McMahon, Sir William

William McMahon was Australia's 20th Prime Minister, in office from March 1971 to December 1972. His government was defeated at the December 1972 general election that brought Gough Whitlam into office. McMahon was first elected to Parliament in 1949, and held the seat of Lowe, in Sydney, for the Liberal Party for 33 years until his retirement in 1982. He served as Minister for Primary Industry (1956–58) and Minister for Labour and National Service (1958–66) in the Menzies government; as Treasurer (1966–69) in the governments of Holt, McEwen and Gorton; and as Minister for External Affairs (1969–71) in the Gorton government.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 41

Menadue, John

John Menadue held several senior positions during Fraser's years in office. He was head of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet from 1974 to 1976, Australia's Ambassador to Japan (1976–80), head of the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs (1980–83), head of the Department of the Special Minister of State (1983), and head of the Department of Trade (1983–86).

Menzies, Sir Robert Gordon

Sir Robert Menzies was Australia's longest-serving Prime Minister, in office from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1949 to 1966. He was a United Australia Party/Liberal MHR for Kooyong (Victoria) from 1934 to 1966. Fraser first entered Parliament in 1955 and served under Menzies for 10 years as a backbencher.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 54

Obasanjo, Olusegun

Olusegun Obasanjo was born in Nigeria in 1937. He joined the army and received officer training in England, subsequently rising quickly through the ranks. Obasanjo became military ruler of Nigeria following the assassination of Brigadier General Murtala Ramat Mohammed in 1976. Elections were held in 1979, but Obasanjo did not run for office. He was imprisoned under the regime of General Sani Abacha in 1995. In 1999 Obasanjo won election for President, a position he held until 2007. Fraser and Obasanjo first met in 1979, during the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Lusaka. In 1985 both men were appointed Co-chair of the Commonwealth Group of Eminent Persons against Apartheid in South Africa.

Peacock, Andrew Sharp

Andrew Peacock was Liberal MHR for Kooyong (Victoria) from 1966 until 1994. He was Minister for Foreign Affairs (1975–80), Minister for Environment (November–December 1975), Minister for Industrial Relations (1980–81), and Minister for Industry and Commerce (1982–83) in the Fraser government. He unsuccessfully challenged Fraser for leadership of the Liberal Party in 1982. He was Leader of the Opposition from 1983 to 1985 and again from 1987 to 1990.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 234

Ramphal, Sir Shridath (Sonny)

Sonny Ramphal was born in 1928 in Guyana and studied Law at King's College, London. Following Guyana's independence, Ramphal was appointed Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, and in 1972 became Minister of Foreign Affairs. Ramphal was elected the second Secretary General at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Jamaica in 1975, a position he held until 1990. As Secretary General, he worked closely with Fraser on issues related to the Commonwealth and apartheid in South Africa.

Sinclair, Ian McCahon

Ian Sinclair was Country (later National) MHR for New England from 1963 until 1998. In the Fraser government, he was Minister for Agriculture (November–December 1975), Minister for Northern Australia (November–December 1975), Minister for Primary Industry (1975–79), Minister for Special Trade Representation (August–November 1980), Minister for Communication (1980–82) and Minister for Defence (1982–83).

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 426

Snedden, Sir Billy Mackie

Billy Snedden was Liberal MHR for the electorate of Bruce (Victoria) from 1955 to 1983. He held ministries in the Menzies, Holt, McEwen, Gorton and McMahon governments. He was Member of the Executive Council without Office (1963–64), Attorney-General (1964–66), Minister for Immigration (1966–69), Minister for Labour and National Service (1969–71), and Treasurer (1971–72). He was also Leader of the Opposition from 1972 to 1975.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 77

Soeharto

Mohammed Soeharto was the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years from 1967, when he replaced Sukarno, until 1998 when he resigned.

Staley, Anthony (Tony) Allan

Tony Staley was Liberal MHR for Chisholm (Victoria) from 1970 until 1980. At one stage he shared a house in Canberra with Fraser. In the Fraser government he was Minister for the Capital Territory (1976–77), Minister Assisting the Prime Minister in Matters Concerning Arts (1976–77), and Minister for Post and Telecommunications (1977–80).

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 233

Stephen, Sir Ninian

In March 1972 Sir Ninian Stephen was appointed a Justice of the High Court of Australia and served on its bench for 10 years. He became a Member of the Privy Council in 1979 and sat on its Judicial Committee in 1981. Sir Ninian retired from the High Court of Australia as Senior Puisne Justice in early 1982, following the announcement of his appointment as Australia's 20th Governor-General. He was sworn in as Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Force of Australia in July 1982. His term as Governor-General expired in February 1989.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 457

Stone, John Owen

John Stone was a Treasury official from 1954 and served as head of Treasury from 1979 until 1984, during much of Fraser's term as Prime Minister. Stone was later elected as a National Party Senator for Queensland.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 489

Street, Anthony Austin

Anthony Street was Liberal MHR for Corangamite (Victoria) from 1966 until 1984. At one stage he shared a house with Fraser in Canberra. In the Fraser government he was Minister for Labour and Immigration (November–December 1975), Minister for Employment and Industrial Relations (1975–78), Minister Assisting the Prime Minister in Public Service Matters (1975–77), Minister Assisting the Prime Minister in Women's Affairs (August–November 1976), Minister for Industrial Relations (1978–80), and Minister for Foreign Affairs (1980–82).

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 203

Tange, Sir Arthur Harold

Arthur Tange was born in 1914 and studied Arts and Economics at the University of Western Australia. He was appointed Secretary of the Department of External Affairs (1954–65) by Casey. After a diplomatic posting, he became Secretary of the Department of Defence in 1970 until his retirement in 1979. He died in 2001.

Wheeler, Sir Frederick Henry

Sir Frederick Wheeler was head of the Department of Treasury from 1971 until 1978.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 340

Whitlam, Edward Gough

Gough Whitlam was Labor MHR for Werriwa (New South Wales) from 1952 to 1978. He was Prime Minister from 5 December 1972 until 11 November 1975 when Governor-General Sir John Kerr dismissed his government from office and installed Malcolm Fraser as caretaker Prime Minister. Whitlam remained Leader of the Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition until 1977. In December 1977 he stood down as party leader after Labor's defeat in the federal election and was succeeded by Bill Hayden. Whitlam resigned from his parliamentary seat on 31 July 1978.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 99

Yeend, Sir Geoffrey

Sir Geoffrey Yeend was Secretary of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet from 1978 to 1986.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person number: CP 982


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