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Research Guides

More People Imperative: Immigration to Australia, 1901–39


Archival sources

Archival sources relating to immigration, other than those held by the National Archives, can be found at the various State Archives and Public Record Offices, the Noel Butlin Archives Centre at the Australian National University, and major libraries in each state such as the National Library of Australia in Canberra, the Mitchell Library in Sydney, the State Library of Victoria, the Royal Historical Society of Victoria, and the J S Battye Library in Perth.

These libraries house collections such as the Fairbridge Society Records, 1912–76, and the Millicent Fawcett Library Emigration Records held in the National Library, the Kingsley Fairbridge Papers held in the Battye, and the records of the Dreadnought Trust in the Mitchell.

There are also relevant British collections held in the Public Record Office in Kew, Surrey, United Kingdom, such as Colonial Office, Dominions Office, Cabinet, and Board of Trade records. Records about Australia held in the United Kingdom have been microcopied by the Australian Joint Copying Project. Records filmed as CO/418, which are held by most major libraries, are particularly useful.

Secondary Sources

Amery, L.S., My Political Life, 3 vols, London, 1953–55

Australia. Development and Migration Commission. Assisted Migration. Commonwealth of Australia, 1928.

Appleyard, R.T., British Emigration to Australia, Canberra, 1964.

Baines, D., Emigration from Europe, 1815–1930, Cambridge, New York, 1995.

Bartrop, P. R., Australia and the Holocaust 1933–45, Melbourne, 1994.

Bean P. & Melville, J., Lost Children of the Empire, Unwin Hyman, 1989.

Birrell, R., Hill D., & Nevill, J., Populate and Perish. The Stresses of Population Growth in Australia, ACF, 1984.

Blakeney, M., Australia and the Jewish Refugees, 1933–48, Sydney, 1985.

Bolton, G.C., A Fine Country to Starve In, Nedlands, 1972.

Borrie, W.D., Population Trends and Policies: a study in Australian and World Demography, Sydney, 1948.

Borrie, W.D., Italians and Germans in Australia; a study of assimilation, Melbourne, 1954.

Brawley, Sean, The White Peril, Foreign Relations and Asian Immigration to Australasia and North America 1919–78, UNSW Press, 1995.

Broome, R., The Victorians Arriving, Sydney, 1984.

Butler, A.G., Official History of the Australian Army Medical Service, 1914–18, 3 vols, Australian War Memorial, Melbourne 1930, Canberra 1940 and 1943 (used in the compilation of the graph in the Introduction).

Coldrey, B.M., The Scheme. The Christian Brothers and Children in Western Australia, Perth, 1993.

Constantine, S., Emigrants and Empire. British Settlement in the Dominions between the Wars, Manchester, 1990.

Carruthers, W.A., Emigration from the British Isles with Special Reference to the Development of the Overseas Dominions, London, 1929.

Cresciani, G., Fascism, anti-Fascism and Italians in Australia, 1922–45, Canberra, 1980.

Cresciani, G. (ed), Australia, the Australians and Italian Migration, Milan, 1983.

Crowley, F.K., 'The British Contribution to the Australian Population 1860–1919', University Studies in History and Economics, vol. 11, no. 2, (July 1958).

Davey, G., A Strange Place to Go. Child migrants to Australia, a resource book, Melbourne 1986.

de Lepervanche, M., 'Australian Immigrants, 1788–1940: Desired and Unwanted' in Wheelwright, E. & Buckley, K. (eds), Essays in the Political Economy of Australian Capitalism, Sydney, 1975.

Douglas, D. (ed.), The Economics of Australian Immigration, Sydney, 1982.

Dugan, M. and Szwarc, J., There Goes the Neighbourhood! Australia's Migrant Experience, Melbourne, 1984.

Edwards, C., Bruce of Melbourne. Man of Two Worlds, London, 1965.

Eggleston, F.W., Phillips, P.D., Packer, G., Scott, E. & Addison, S.S. (eds), The Peopling of Australia, Further Studies, Melbourne, 1933.

Fairbridge, K, The Story of Kingsley Fairbridge by Himself, London, 1927.

Fairbridge, R., Pinjarra. The Building of a Farm School, London, 1937.

Fitzgardinge, L.F., William Morris Hughes. A Political Biography, 2 vols, Sydney, 1964, 1979.

Forsyth, W.D., 'British Migration to Australia. Demographic and Social Aspects', Economic Record, vol. 14 (1938), pp.39–47.

Forsyth, W.D., The Myth of Open Spaces. Australian, British and World Trends of Population and Migration, Melbourne, 1942.

Foster, L., High hopes: the men and motives of the Australian Round Table, Melbourne, 1986.

Gabbedy, J.P., Group Settlement, 2 vols., Perth, 1988.

Gerritsen, R., 'The 1934 Kalgoorlie riots: a Western Australian crowd', University Studies in History, vol. 5, no.3, 1969, pp.42–75.

Hardy, J. (ed.) Stories of Australian Migration, NSW, 1988.

Harmstorf, I. & Cigler, M, The Germans in Australia, Melbourne, 1985.

Harris, H.L., Australia's National Interests and National Policy, Melbourne, 1938.

Hicks, N., 'This Sin and Scandal': Australia's Population debate, 1891–1911, Canberra, 1978.

Hughes, W.M., The Splendid Adventure, London, 1929.

Hunt, I.L., 'Group Settlement in Western Australia', University Studies in Western Australian History, vol. 3 (1958), pp.5–42.

Jupp, J. (ed.), The Australian People. An Encyclopaedia of the Nation, its People and their Origins, Sydney 1988.

Jupp, J., Australian Retrospectives Immigration, Sydney, 1991.

Jupp, J., Immigration, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1991. Second edition 1998

Koivukangas, O. & Martin, J., The Scandinavians in Australia, Melbourne, 1986.

Kunz, E., Hungarians in Australia, Melbourne, 1985.

Lack, J. and Templeton, J. (eds) Sources of Australian Immigration History 1901–45, Melbourne, 1988.

Lake, M., The Limits of Hope. Soldier Settlement in Victoria, 1915–38, Melbourne, 1987.

La Nauze, J., Alfred Deakin. A Biography, 2 vols, Melbourne, 1965.

Lane, J., Fairbridge Kid, Fremantle, 1990.

Langfield, M., 'Fit for the elect of the world': government policy and contemporary opinion about the encouragement of immigrants to Australia, 1901–39', PhD thesis, Monash University, 1990.

Langfield, M., 'Attitudes to European immigration to Australia in the early twentieth century', Journal of Intercultural Studies, vol. 12, Number 1, 1991.

Langfield, M., 'White aliens': the control of European immigration to Australia, 1920–30, Journal of Intercultural Studies, vol. 12, Number 11, 1991.

Langfield, M., 'The Ideal Immigrant': Immigration to Victoria between Federation and the First World War', Australian Studies (UK), no. 8, July 1994.

Langfield, M., 'To Restore British Migration': Australian Population Debates in the 1930s', Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. 41, Number 3, 1995.

Langfield, M., 'Bridging the Cultural Divide: Movements of People between Australia and Asia' in Mark McGillivray and Gary Smith (eds), Australia and Asia, OUP, Melbourne, 1997.

Langfield, M., 'The Welsh Patagonian Connection: a neglected chapter in Australian immigration history', International Migration, Quarterly Review, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1998, pp.67–91.

Langfield, M., 'Looking to the future while reinforcing the past: World War One and Australian Immigration', in War and Other CatastrophesJournal of Australian Studies,Queensland University Press, No. 60, 1999.

Lewis, G., 'Million Farms' Campaign, New South Wales 1919–25', Labour History, no. 47 (Nov. 1984), pp.52–72.

Loh, M., With Courage in their Cases: the experience of thirty-five Italian immigrant workers and their families in Australia, Melbourne, 1980.

Lowenstein, W. & Loh, M., The Immigrants, Melbourne, 1977.

London, H.I., Non-White Immigration and the 'White Australia' Policy, New York, 1970.

Lynch P.J. & Gregory, H. 'Immigration: the Possibility of Settling Immigrants on Lands in Western Australia', Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers, 1922, vol. 2, paper No.2.

Lyng, J., Non-Britishers in Australia. Influence on Population and Progress, Melbourne, 1927.

Lyng, J., Scandinavians in Australia, New Zealand and the Western Pacific, Melbourne, 1939.

McConville, C., Croppies, Celts and Catholics: the Irish in Australia, Melbourne, 1987.

MacDonald, J.S. & Leatrice, D., 'Italian Migration to Australia. Manifest Functions of Bureaucracy versus Latent Functions of Informal Networks' Journal of Social History, vol.111, 1970, pp.228–37.

McDonald, S.R., 'Victoria's Immigration Scandal of the 1930s', Victorian Historical Journal, vol. 49 (1978), pp.228–37.

Madgwick, R.B., 'Immigration', Economic Record, June 1936, vol.X11, pp.71–82.

Markus, A., 'Jewish Migration to Australia 1838–49', Journal of Australian Studies, no. 13 (1983), pp.18–31.

Markus, A., 'Everybody Become a Job' in Burgmann, V. & Lee, J. (eds), A Most Valuable Acquisition, Melbourne, 1988.

Markus, A., Australian Race Relations 1788–1993, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1994.

Norris, R., The Emergent Commonwealth: Australian Federation: Expectations and Fulfilment 1889–1910, Melbourne 1975.

O'Farrell, P., The Irish in Australia, Sydney, 1986.

Palfreeman, A.C., The Administration of the White Australia Policy, Melbourne, 1967.

Pascoe, R., Buongiorno Australia: Our Italian Heritage, Melbourne, 1987.

Pepperall, R.A., Emigrant to Australia, London, 1948.

Phillips, P.D. & Wood, G.L. (eds), The Peopling of Australia, Melbourne, 1928.

Plant, G. F., Oversea Settlement. Migration from the United Kingdom to the Dominions, London, 1951.

Pope, D., 'Empire Migration to Canada, Australia and New Zealand', 1910–29, Australian Economic Papers, vol. 16 (1968), pp.167–88.

Pope, D., 'The Push-Pull Model of Australian Migration', Australian Economic History Review, vol. XVI (1976).

Pope, D., 'The Contribution of United Kingdom Migrants to Australia's Population, Employment and Economic Growth: Federation to the Depression', Australian Economic Papers, vol. XVI (1977), pp.194–209.

Pope, D., 'Modelling the Peopling of Australia, 1900–30', Australian Economic Papers, vol. XXXV111 (1981), pp.258–83.

Pope, D., 'Contours of Australian Immigration, 1901–30', Australian Economic History Review, vol. XXI, no.1 (March 1961), pp.29–52.

Pope, D., 'Assisted Immigration and Federal-State Relations 1901–30', Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. 28 (1982), pp.23–50.

Pope, D., 'Commonwealth Expenditure on Assisted Immigration, 1907–39', Bulletin of Australian Historical Statistics, no. 7 (May 1983), pp.71–96.

Pope, D., 'Some Factors Inhibiting Australian Immigration in the 1920s', Australian Economic History Review, vol. XXIV (March 1984), pp.34–52.

Pope, D. & Withers, G., Immigration and Unemployment. A Long Term Perspective, Canberra, 1985.

Prentis, M.D. The Scottish in Australia, Melbourne, 1987.

Price, C.A., 'European Minorities in Australia, 1840–1940', Historical Studies, vol. VI, 1954, pp.290–300.

Price, C.A., Southern Europeans in Australia, Melbourne, 1963.

Price, C.A., Jewish Settlers in Australia, Canberra, 1964.

Price, C.A., Australian Immigration: a Bibliography and Digest, various nos, Canberra, 1966, 1970, 1975 (with Jean Martin), 1979.

Price, C.A., Greeks in Australia, Canberra, 1975.

Price, C.A., Southern Europeans in Australia, Melbourne 1963.

Public Record Office, Victoria, Coming South. Victorian Archives of Immigration 1839–1923. A Guide, Victoria, 1995.

Randazzo, N. & Cigler, M., The Italians in Australia, Melbourne, 1987.

Richards, E. (ed.), The Flinders History of South Australia, South Australia, 1986.

Roberts, S., History of Australian Land Settlement 1788–1920, Australia, 1968.

Roe, M., Nine Australian Progressives. Vitalism in Bourgeois Social Thought 1890–1960, Queensland, 1984.

Roe, M., Australia, Britain and Migration. A Study of Desperate Hopes, Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Rubenstein, W.D., The Jews in Australia, Melbourne, 1986.

Rubenstein, W.D. (ed.), Jews in the Sixth Continent, Sydney, 1987.

Rutland, S.D., 'Jewish Immigration to New South Wales, 1919–39', Australian Jewish Historical Society Journal, vol. 7, no. 5, November 1973, pp.337–47.

Rutland, S.D., 'Australian Government Policies to Refugee Migration 1933–39', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 69, no. 4 (March 1984), pp.224–38.

Rutland, S.D., 'Australian Responses to Jewish Refugee Migration before and after World War Two', Australian Journal of Politics and History, Special Issue on Jewish Immigration, vol. 31, no. 1, 1985, pp.29–48.

Rutland, S.D., Edge of the Diaspora: Two Centuries of Jewish Settlement in Australia, Australia, 1988.

Scholes, A.G., Education for Empire Settlement, A Study of Juvenile Migration, London, 1932.

Shann, E., 'Group Settlement of Migrants in Western Australia', The Economic Record, vol. 1, November 1925.

Sherington, G., Australia's Immigrants 1788–1988, Sydney, 1980, 1990.

Tsokhas, K., 'People or Money? Empire Settlement and British Emigration to Australia, 1919–34', Immigration and Minorities, vol. 9 (1990), pp.1–20.

Tsokhas, K., 'Hard Times: British Emigration to Western Australia 1919–34', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 78 (1992), pp.69–91.

Vondra, J., German Settlers in Australia, Melbourne, 1981.

Wickens, C.H., 'Australian Immigration Policy' in Phillips, P.D. and Wood, G.L., The Peopling of Australia, Melbourne, 1930.

Willard, M., History of the White Australia Policy to 1920, Melbourne, 1923.

Wolstenholme, S., 'The Future of the Australian Population, Economic Record, vol. xii, December 1936, pp.195–213.

Yarwood, A.T., 'The Dictation Test: A Historical Survey', Australian Quarterly, vol. XXX, June 1958, pp.19–29.

Yarwood, A.T., 'The “White Australia” Policy: Some Administrative Problems – 1901–20', Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. VII, November 1961, pp.245–60.

Yarwood, A.T., Asian Migration to Australia: the Background to Exclusion 1896–1923, Melbourne, 1964.

Yarwood, A.T. (ed.), Attitudes to Non-European Immigration, Melbourne, 1968.

Yarwood, A.T. & Knowling, M., Race Relations in Australia: A History, North Ryde, 1982.

York, B., The Maltese in Australia, Melbourne 1986.

York, B., Our Multicultural Heritage 1788–1945, an annotated guide to the collections of the National Library of Australia, Canberra, 1995.

Zubrzycki, J., Settlers of the La Trobe Valley, Canberra, 1964.

Oral Sources

See various collections housed in the Oral History section of the National Library of Australia especially the New South Wales Bicentennial Oral History Project which includes interviews of Dreadnought boys and other migrants who came to Australia between 1901 and 1939.


Federal and State Parliamentary Papers, Government Reports, Inquiries and Royal Commissions (see Appendix 2, Chronology), Official Year Books, the records of political parties, trade unions and the Trades Hall Council, as well as the contemporary press, are all rich sources on immigration policy and practice, and the public response. In addition, academic journals published during the period, such as The Australian Quarterly and The Economic Record highlight many of the current debates.