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Commonwealth Government Records about the Northern Territory


All notes

Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5 | Chapter 6 | Chapter 7 | Chapter 8
Chapter 9 | Chapter 10 | Chapter 11 | Chapter 12 | Chapter 13 | Chapter 14 | Chapter 15
Chapter 16 | Chapter 17

Chapter 1

The Northern Territory of South Australia, 1863-1911


1 North Queensland Register, 12 January 1911.

2 NAA: A461, A412/1/2 part 1, Northern Territory miscellaneous, 2 March 1935

3 NAA: A461, A412/1/2 part 2, Northern Territory miscellaneous, 26 August 1948

4 Alistair Heatley and Graham Nicholson, Select Constitutional Documents on the Northern Territory (Darwin, 1989), p. 27.

5 The original document is held by State Records of South Australia; SRSA Adelaide: GRG224/31.

6 Finniss kept a diary recording events relating to the survey; State Records of South Australia: GRG35/637.

7 NAA: E1636, Register of requests for refund of purchase money under the Northern Territory Amendment Act 1868 (London register), 1869–70.

8 Goyder kept a diary which recorded events relating to the survey; State Records of South Australia: GRG35/655.

9 John McDouall Stuart's exploration of the Northern Territory, and the subsequent construction of the overland telegraph line, was the subject of a documentary entitled A Wire Through the Heart shown on ABC television in 2007.

10 David Carment and Sue Harlow, 'A History of Mining in the Northern Territory', in Donovan and Associates, A Mining History of Australia, Part 1 (Blackwood, 1995), p. 116.

11 Government Resident's Report on the Northern Territory for the Year 1889, p. 7.

12 Timothy G Jones, Pegging the Northern Territory: The History of Mining in the Northern Territory of Australia, 1873–1946, p. 144.

13 Darrell Lewis, The Murranji Track: Ghost Road of the Drovers (Rockhampton, 2007).

14 Report of the Northern Territory Commission; together with the Minutes of Proceedings, Evidence and Appendices; South Australia Parliamentary Papers (1895), volume 2, paper 19.

15 Northern Territory Report of the Administrator for the Year 1912, p. 65; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1913), volume III, pp. 227–385

16 NAA: A3, NT1914/3401, Pastoral permits Northern Territory.

17 Valerie Fletcher, 'Good Years and Bad Governments: The Northern Territory Pastoral Industry, 1901–1910', Journal of Northern Territory History, issue 8 (1997), pp. 13–26.

18 Copies of reports for the period 1879–1910 are also held by the National Archives in Canberra. NAA: AA1968/288.

19 Ross Duncan, The Northern Territory Pastoral Industry (Melbourne, 1967), pp. 149–56.

Chapter 2

Early Commonwealth Years, 1911–21


1 Northern Territory Report of the Acting Administrator for the Year 1911, p. 15; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1912), volume III, pp. 595–651.

2 Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia, number 6, 1912 (Melbourne 1913), p. 338.

3 Northern Territory Report of the Acting Administrator for the Year 1911, ibid, 1911, p. 3.

4 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, Senate, volume LXV, 1 August 1912, p. 1535.

5 NTAS: NTRS2500, L3394, Land legislation proposed consolidation.

6 Rex Alan Patterson, 'The Economics of Transportation Development', PhD thesis, University of Illinois, 1960, p. 168.

7 NAA: A3, NT1916/2606, Visit of Secretary to the Northern Territory.

8 Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia, number 2, 1909 (Melbourne: McCarron, Bird and Co, 1909), p. 157.

9 NAA: A3, NT1914/3682, Reports by Captain H V Barclay on certain bores on the Barkly Tablelands and on the stock route Victoria River to Newcastle Waters, 3 August 1911.

10 Northern Territory Report of the Administrator for the Year 1912, p. 1; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1913), volume III, pp. 227–385.

11 Douglas Lockwood, Darwin: The Front Door (Sydney, 1969), p. 139. Douglas R Barrie also recited the pumpkin story; The Heart of Rum Jungle: The History of Rum Jungle and Batchelor in the Northern Territory of Australia (Maryborough, 1982), pp. 94–95.

12 Patrick McMahon Glynn, 'Northern Territory. Outlines of Policy', Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers, (1914), volume II, pp. 659–676.

13 NLA: MS4653, series 16, folder 1, Correspondence, Minister for External Affairs.

14 Alan Powell, Far Country: A Short History of the Northern Territory (Melbourne, 1996), p. 134.

15 NLA: MS1927, series 3, folios 1927/1271 (28 April 1933) and 1927/1270 (1 May 1933).

16 Patrick McMahon Glynn, Memorandum on the Northern Territory, Parliamentary Papers (1917), volume VI, pp. 1089–99.

17 ibid, p. 11.

18 Alan Powell, Far Country, pp. 128–29.

19 NAA: A2, 1917/1753, Northern Territory position of the Administrator.

20 Report on Northern Territory Administration, pp. 5, 12, 16; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1920–21), volume III, pp. 1653–69.

21 ibid.

22 ibid.

23 ibid.

24 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, volume XCIV, 5 November 1920, pp. 6279–81.

25 NAA: A3, NT1922/3709, Reorganisation of Northern Territory administration. Poynton's report was prepared in June 1921.

26 NAA: A3, NT1922/2695, H M Trower – termination of appointment.

27 Australia. Economies Royal Commission, First Progress Report, recommendation 45, p. 90; CommonwealthParliamentary Papers (1917–19), volume V, pp. 1525–615.

28 Northern Territory Report of the Acting Administrator for the Year 1911, p. 40.

29 Northern Territory Report of the Administrator for the Years 1915–16 and 1916–17, pp. 8, 20–21.

30 Northern Territory Report of the Administrator for the Years 1915–16 and 1916–17, p. 9.

31 Northern Territory Report of the Administrator for the Year 1921, p. 12; Commonwealth ParliamentaryPapers (1922), volume II, pp. 2927–63.

32 NAA: A2, 1916/1785, Northern Territory committee to report on question of settlement.

33 NLA: MS937, series 6, Correspondence and press cuttings regarding Northern Territory, Papua and Norfolk Island, 9 March 1916.

34 Report of the Administrator of the Northern Territory, 1921, p. 4; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1922), volume II, pp. 2927–63.

35 NAA: F20, 86/1, Lands Office reorganisation, report of H J Aylward. In 1928 another review of the Darwin Lands Office was conducted by H J Aylward, a retired land officer from New South Wales. He too commented on the poor quality of staff in Darwin.

36 NAA: A3, NT1917/77, T E Day report on control and administration of Northern Territory, 4 December 1916.

37 A Grenfell Price, The History and Problems of the Northern Territory, Australia (Adelaide, 1930), p. 32.

38 NTAS: NTRS3345, D89, Annual report (Lands).

39 NAA: A3, NT1923/3088, F A C Bishop – chief veterinary officer – visit of inspector.

40 NTAS: NTRS3345, D89, Annual report (Lands).

41 NTAS: NTRS3345, D89, Annual report (Lands).

42 NTAS: NTRS3345, D89, Annual report (Lands).

43 'Pastoral industry, combating diseases, opening new stock routes', Northern Territory Times, 24 January 1922, p. 3.

44 J C Lewis, the first Chief Inspector of Stock, also prepared a report on stock diseases in the Territory; 'Veterinary and Stock Report and Some of the Diseases in Stock', Bulletin of the Northern Territory, number 8 (Melbourne, July 1913).

45 John Mettam, 'Central Administration and the Northern Territory', PhD thesis, University of Sydney, 1995, p. 122.

46 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, Senate, volume 103, 18 July 1923, p. 1220.

47 NLA: MS1827, series 6, folio 1827/315, 1923.

Chapter 3

George Pearce and Development of the North, 1921–37


1 'Northern Territory lands, proposals for development, former official's suggestions', The Age (Melbourne), 11 May 1922, p. 7.

2 NAA: A3, NT1922/2695, H M Trower – termination of appointment, 2 June 1922.

3 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, Senate, volume XCIX, 12 July 1922, p. 310. In 1926 Pearce had spoken in Parliament about the 'battles in Cabinet' that Territory Ministers faced in order to have their development proposals approved and funded. Other Ministers were suspicious because of past failures; Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, Senate, volume 112, 21 January 1926, p. 233.

4 'The Northern Territory, problem of its development, the Federal Government's policy', Advertiser (Adelaide), 3 November 1922, p. 11. By 1923 there were 470 pastoral leases, with 121 leases held under the 1890 South Australian Act, ninety leases under the 1899 South Australian Act, and 259 leases under the 1912 Crown Lands Ordinance.

5 NAA: A2124, 5, Papers relating to the Northern Territory accumulated by the Secretary to Minister for Home and Territories, 3 March 1923.

6 NAA: A431, 1946/868, Proposed land policy.

7 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, Senate, volume 103, 13 July 1923, p. 1084.

8 NAA: A6006, 1923/3/21, Land Ordinance Northern Territory, 21 March 1923.

9 NAA: A659, 1945/1/1088, Northern Territory land resumptions 1945.

10 NAA: A431, 1946/860, Crown Land Ordinance.

11 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, volume 103, 29 June 1923, pp. 517–29. The seat of Northern Territory was created in 1922 and Nelson was its first representative.

12 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, Senate, volume 103, 13 July 1923, p. 1083.

13 NAA: A659, 1943/1/7032 part 1, Appointment of committee to review land policy – Northern Territory (W L Payne report), 7 December 1936.

14 NAA: A2718, volume 1, part 1, Bruce–Page Ministry, Cabinet minutes 12 February to 7 December 1923 (Decision: Northern Territory Executive Commission, 20 November 1923).

15 A series of telegrams between Cabinet, Bruce and Pearce record the discussions at that time; NAA: A3934, SC42/25, Executive Commission, 1923.

16 Australia. Report on Northern Territory Development and Administration, 25 July 1925; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1925), volume II, pp. 2509–33.

17 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, volume 112, 10 February 1926, pp. 820–826.

18 The Commission superseded the Land Board created in 1924. Its members were John Horsburgh, George Hobler and William Easton.

19 North Australia Commission Interim Report, Development of North Australia, Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1926–28), volume II, pp. 1971–1990

20 NAA: F20, 93, Water boring and conservation – water supplies on leases – assistance. The Commission's views on water were outlined in a memo dated 25 August 1927.

21 Jill Baillie, 'Struggling to Achieve the Vision Splendid: The North Australia Commission, 1927–1930', Northern Perspective, volume 13, number 2 (1990), p. 31.

22 NAA: F20, 1, Northern Australia Act, 1926 proclamation of etc.

23 NAA: F20, 62, Railway survey (trial) to Western Australia border – also road traverses.

24 NAA: A1, 1934/3449, Northern Territory Pastoral Lessees Association deputation to Minister 1932 development of Northern Territory, 31 August 1932.

25 NAA: A3259, volume 2, part 1, Lyons Ministry – Minutes of Cabinet Meetings, 1934 (Decision 964, Interim report of Committee of Investigation Northern Territory pastoral leases).

26 Wikipedia; www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chartered company (accessed 8 May 2009).

27 NAA: A2694, volume 7, submission 589, Development of north–west Australia. A copy is held in Pearce's personal papers; NLA Canberra: MS1827, series 8, folios 1827/590–592. The submission was not dated; however, Pearce's papers show that it was sent to Cabinet on 19 April 1933; MS1827, series 8, folio 1827/586.

28 NAA: A1, 1934/3449, Northern Territory Pastoral Lessees Association deputation to Minister, 31 August 1932.

29 NAA: A2694, volume 9, submission 589, Development of north–west Australia, 13 July 1933. The sub– committee had sent a submission to Cabinet on 17 May 1933 with preliminary recommendations, which were approved on 18 May 1933; A2694, volume 8, submission 589.

30 NLA: MS1827, series 8, folios 1827/615–16.

31 NLA: MS1827, series 3, folio 1827/57 contains a record of the meeting between Pearce and Mitchell.

32 'Developing the north', West Australian, 26 August 1933, p. 17.

33 NLA: MS1827, series 8, folios 1827/632–634, 7 December 1933.

34 Australia. Royal Commission into Northern Territory Railways and Ports, Report, pp. 7, 22–23.

35 NAA: A2694, volume 12, submission 1048, Development of North Australia: proposals for the formation of a chartered company with jurisdiction over the Barkly Tablelands and adjoining areas, 10 April 1934.

36 'Barkly Tableland development plan, proposal by lessees', Sydney Morning Herald, 21 April 1934, p. 15.

37 NAA: A431, 1946/622, H E Beaven report on the Vanderlin Island meat works, 14 December 1934.

38 NAA: CP290/1, bundle 1, 12, Barkly Tableland Cooperative Cabinet submission, Annexure B, 8 February 1935. Casey replaced Walter Massy–Greene as Assistant Treasurer in October 1933.

39 NAA: A659, 1939/1/8371, Report of Development Branch, development of the Northern Territory, 25 February 1935.

40 North Australia Development: Barkly Tablelands Proposal, 25 February 1935. Copies of this submission are held by NAA: CP290/1, bundle 1, 12, Barkly Tableland Cooperative Cabinet submission, and NLA: MS1827, series 8, folios 1827/676–685. Precisely when Cabinet discussed the matter is unknown, as no record can be found of it actually being listed on the agenda for Cabinet meetings.

41 The Commonwealth's copy of the letter cited here cannot be located. McLaren and Cooper quoted from the original copy of the letter in the records of the Pastoral Lessees Association held by the Northern Territory Archives Service; Glen McLaren and William Cooper, Distance, Drought and Dispossession, A History of the Northern Territory Pastoral Industry (Darwin, 2001), p. 128.

42 C L A Abbott, The Present Scheme of Development for the Barkly Tableland with a Short History of the Northern Territory (Canberra, 1936).

43 NLA: MS1827, series 8, folios 1827/671–675, 1 March 1936.

44 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, volume 151, 24 September 1936, pp. 490–91.

45 Australia. Board of Inquiry appointed to Inquire into the Land and Land Industries of the Northern Territory, p. 36, paragraph 189.

46 NLA: MS1827, series 8, folio 1827/517, 29 August 1927.

47 NAA: A659, 1943/1/7032 part 1, Committee to review Land Policy – Northern Territory – W L Payne report, 1938–53.

48 NAA Canberra: A2694, volume 16, part 1, submission 1828, Land policy in the Northern Territory, 9 July 1936. Cabinet approved Paterson's request on 10 July 1936.

49 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, volume 151, 24 September 1936, p.500.

50 NAA: A2694, volume 17, part 1, submission 1828, Northern Territory land committee.

51 NAA: A659, 1943/1/7032 part 1, Op cit.

52 Australia. Report of the Board of Inquiry appointed to Inquire into the Land and Land Industries of the Northern Territory of Australia; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1937–40), volume III, pp. 813–925.

53 ibid, p. xi.

54 Primary producers in the Territory had been exempt from State income tax since 1923.

55 The maxims were published opposite page 66 of the report.

56 The Board was established in 1931, after the demise of the North Australia Commission, to classify vacant Crown lands prior to leasing, approve applications for leases, determine lease rents, and monitor leaseholders' compliance with the terms of their leases.

57 'The Payne report', Northern Standard, 22 February 1938, p. 6.

58 NAA: A1, 1938/4963, Deputation to Minister by Pastoral Lessees Association re Northern Territory investigation committee report.

59 NAA: A2694, volume 18, part 5, submission 477, Pastoral industry, October 1938.

60 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, volume 158, House of Representatives, 8 December 1938, pp. 2979–2987.

61 NAA: A659, 1940/1/424, Boring for water in the Northern Territory, 17 August 1939.

62 Report on the Administration of the Northern Territory for Year 1939–40, p. 3. This report was not published as part of the consolidated set of Parliamentary Papers due to wartime restrictions. Copies are held by the National Archives of Australia in Darwin and the Northern Territory Archives Service.

Chapter 4

World War II and Planning for the Future


1 NAA: CP764/2, Report on the administration of the Northern Territory by J A Carrodus, 1934.

2 NAA: A1, 1938/4979, Minister's visit to north and central Australia; report by C L A Abbott following his visit to the Northern Territory, June 1929, p. 7.

3 NAA: A461, B412/1/2 part 1, Northern Territory administration, 7 November 1936.

4 NAA: A981, IMP111, Imperial Conference – 1923, summary of proceedings and conclusions.

5 NAA: A2694, volume 3, submission 171, Emergency defence of Darwin, 11 May 1932.

6 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, volume 157, 2 November 1938, pp.1101–10.

7 NAA: A2673, War Cabinet Minute 1578, Evacuation of women and children from Darwin, New Guinea and Papua, 12 December 1941.

8 Janet Dickinson, Refugees in Our Own Country: The Story of Darwin's Wartime Evacuees (Darwin, 1995).

9 Report on the Administration of the Northern Territory for the year ended 30th June 1942, 29 January 1943, pp. 1–2.

10 NAA: E72, item DP14873/4, Exhumation, transfer of remains of Japanese servicemen from Berrimah to Japan.

11 NAA: F1, 1942/407, War damage and looting, Darwin – enquiries by the War Damage Commission, 28 May 1942.

12 NAA: A816, 37/301/310, Air raid on Darwin – final report of Commission of Inquiry, 1942.

13 Alan Powell, Far Country: A Short History of the Northern Territory (Melbourne, 1988), p. 204.

14 NAA: F1, 1940/230, Planning of town of Darwin.

15 The National Library of Australia in Canberra holds a copy of McInnis' 1940 report.

16 Report on the Administration of the Northern Territory for the year ended 30th June 1942, 29 January 1943, p. 10.

17 NAA: F1, 1946/159 part 1, Darwin Lands Acquisition Act.

18 NAA: A2700, submission 898, Town planning, Darwin, 27 July 1945.

19 NAA: A2700, submission 735, Planning for the rebuilding and economic development of Darwin, 21 September 1944.

20 NAA: F1, 1966/4452, History of town planning, Darwin, 1942–44.

21 NAA: A2700, submission 1022A, Interim report on the economic and commercial development of Darwin and the Northern Territory.

22 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, Senate, volume XCIX, 12 July 1922, p. 310.

23 NAA: A2700, submission 940, Northern Australia, 25 September 1945.

24 NAA: AA1972/841, 11, Northern Australia Development Committee development of northern Australia, 1947.

25 NAA: A431, 1947/1255, Formation of the Northern Australia Development Committee.

26 NAA: A431, 1949/1045, Ministerial visit to the Northern Territory, 1943–46.

27 NAA: A2700, submission 1092, Leasing of land for pastoral purposes, Northern Territory, 27 February 1946; submission 1093, Bores on stock routes, 27 February 1946; submission 1092A, Limitation of areas of pastoral leases, Northern Territory, 4 April 1946; submission 1152, Crown Lands Ordinance, Northern Territory, 10 April 1946.

28 C L A Abbott, Australia's Frontier Province (Sydney, 1950), pp. 43–44.

29 ibid, p. 169.

30 NAA: F1, 1948/142, British Food Mission investigations, 1948.

31 NAA: A2700, submission 1585A, Development of the beef industry North Australia, 12 May 1949.

32 NAA: A2700, submission 1585, Development of the beef industry North Australia, 7 April 1949.

Chapter 5

Post-War Growth and Development


1 P F Donovan, At the Other End of Australia: The Commonwealth and the Northern Territory, 1911–1978 (Brisbane,1984), p. 129.

2 NLA: MS5274, 17, 27 May 1951.

3 NLA: MS5274, box 38, 'Speeches – The Northern Territory'.

4 NAA: A4909, 28, Administrator of Northern Territory, 19 June 1951.

5 Melbourne Argus, 28 June 1951, p. 2.

6 P M Glynn, Northern Territory. Outlines of Policy, Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1914), volume II, pp. 659–76.

7 Stephen Roberts, History of Australian Land Settlement (New York, 1968) p. 403.

8 NAA: F20, 88, Betterment tax.

9 Australia. Board of Inquiry appointed to Inquire into the Land and Land Industries of the Northern Territory, p. 30, paragraph 157, Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1937–40), volume III, pp 813–925.

10 NBAC Canberra: 119/9, Land resumptions, 7 July 1937. Martin's comments were contained in his company's response to the questionnaire issued by the Payne–Fletcher Inquiry.

11 NAA: F1, 1948/142, British Food Mission investigations.

12 NAA: A463, 1957/2946, Advisory Council on air beef transport.

13 NAA: A4905, volume 12, submission 288, Railway from Dajarra to Newcastle Waters, 17 June 1952; volume 17, submission 416, Railway from Dajarra to Newcastle Waters, 17 March 1953; volume 20, submission 564, Railway from Dajarra to Birdum, 19 October 1953.

14 P F Donovan, pp. 98–99.

15 NAA: A463, 1957/2946, Advisory Council on air beef transport, 31 January 1956.

16 A brief historical overview of the scheme was published by the company's chief executive, Ian H Grabowsky; The Air Beef Scheme: A Summary (Sydney, 1952).

17 NAA: A4906, volume 3, submission 95, Expert panel air transport of beef.

18 NAA: A463, 1957/2946, Advisory Council on air beef transport.

19 NAA: A987, E1005 part 5, Air beef Commonwealth air beef interim report.

20 NAA: A452, 1957/481 part 2, Advisory panel air beef transport Northern Territory, 11 December 1957.

21 NAA: A987, E1005 part 5, Air beef Commonwealth air beef interim report.

22 NAA: A2700, submission 1585B, Development of meat production, 15 August 1949. The submission was approved by Cabinet on 19 August 1949.

23 NAA: A461, H412/1/3, Barkly Tableland railway.

24 NAA: AA1972/841, 12, Road transportation of cattle, trials, 1948.

25 NTAS: F1439, 1958/482, Transport of cattle by road K Johanssen. Maddock also noted that the Kittle Brothers briefly operated a cattle trucking service from Banka Banka station (on the Barkly Tableland), from 1946; John Maddock, The History of Road Trains in the Northern Territory, 1934–1988 (Kenthurst, 1988), pp. 35–36.

26 NAA: F425, C22 part 1, Development of Northern Australia, 16 June 1949.

27 NAA: A5915, submission 1111, NT development roads, August 1974.

28 NAA: A452, 1957/481 part 1, Advisory panel air beef transport Northern Territory.

29 NAA F1, 1951/1055 part 2, Beef transport and marketing conference, Adelaide, 1957.

30 NAA: A452, 1957/481 part 1, Advisory panel air beef transport Northern Territory. Memo by departmental officer E J Wood, 5 May 1956.

31 NAA: A452, 1957/481 part 1, Advisory panel air beef transport Northern Territory. Memo by departmental officer E J Wood, 5 May 1956.

32 NAA: F1, 1965/1737, Investigation, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, economics of road transport of beef in the NT, 8 March 1960.

33 NAA: A452, 1961/27, Policy relating to development of roads in north Australia, 13 December 1960.

34 NAA: A463, 1965/3493, Beef road development.

35 NAA: NTAC1980/26, 1973/1296, Beef roads Northern Territory. This file contains a summary of expenditure on beef roads and developmental roads from 1954–55 to 1973–74.

36 The 1956–59 figure is taken from Maddock's The History of Road Trains in the Northern Territory, p. 117; the 1973 figure is taken from NAA: NTAC1980/26, 1973/1676, Value of primary production.

37 Darrel Lewis, The Murranji Track: Ghost Road of the Drovers (Rockhampton, 2007), p. 94.

38 NTAS: NTRS2500, L25 part 2, Stock routes, 15 May 1974.

39 NAA: M331, 163, Crown Lands Ordinance Northern Territory, 6 December 1951.

40 NTAS Darwin: NTRS2500, L657 part 1, Lands Office organisation, 18 March 1959.

41 NAA: F1, 1951/747 part 2, Cattle industry Northern Territory; report prepared by Lionel Rose entitled 'Basic data designed to indicate value of Animal Industry Organisation in Northern Territory beef production', 14 December 1951.

42 NAA: A659, 1943/1/6124, Bores on stock routes.

43 NAA: A659, 1943/1/6124, Bores on stock routes, 4 July 1944.

44 NAA: F1, 1952/106, Stock Routes Ordinance.

45 NAA: A452, 1956/1185, Movement of cattle Northern Territory.

46 Australia. Board of Inquiry appointed to Inquire into the Land and Land Industries of the Northern Territory of Australia, Report, p. 24, paragraph 125.

47 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, Senate, volume LXV, 1 August 1912, p. 1532.

48 NAA: A431, 1946/924, Northern Territory committee regarding land administration Northern Territory, including Lands and Titles Office Darwin; Cabinet submission 38, Land Policy, Northern Territory, 18 May 1939.

49 NAA: A452, 1955/642, Land Court Northern Territory, 10 January 1946.

50 NAA: A452, 1955/642, Land Court Northern Territory. The letter to Queensland was dated 14 April 1949; Queensland's reply was dated 20 May 1949. The letter to South Australia was dated 20 July 1949; South Australia's reply was dated 3 November 1949.

51 Effectively the Pastoral Board of South Australia was designated as the Land Court of the Northern Territory.

52 NAA: F425, C27 part 3, Land Board, 24 April 1963.

53 NAA: F1, 1958/1712, Establishment of Land Court in Northern Territory, 17 June 1959.

54 NAA: A5827, volume 10, agendum 322, Northern Territory Development, 16 February 1964.

55 NAA: NTAC1980/26, 1975/178, Northern Division.

56 Australia. Committee of Investigation into Transport Costs in Northern Australia, Report, 1965, Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1967), volume 7, pp. 1195–388.

57 NAA: NTAC1980/26, item 1973/676, Briefing notes prepared by Northern Division for Minister.

58 Report on the Administration of the Northern Territory for the Years 1915–16 and 1916–19, p. 22.

59 Report on the Administration of the Northern Territory for the Year ended 30th June 1932, p. 5.

60 Report on the Administration of the Northern Territory for the Year ended 30th June 1934, p. 40.

61 NAA: A4940, C3526, Northern Territory development 1962/63, 20 July 1964.

62 Australia. Northern Development: Progress in the Northern Territory, statement by the Minister for Territories (Canberra, 1962).

63 NLA: MS5274, box 38, The Northern Territory 1951–1963; Introduction, p. 77.

64 NAA: E1531, 2, Development of the Northern Territory – Department of Territories.

65 NLA: MS5274, box 38, The Northern Territory 1951–1963; paper number 3, 'Government Works for Beef Production' (March 1954), p. 12.

66 NLA: MS5274, box 38, The Northern Territory 1951–1963; paper number 2, 'At Last She Moves' (March 1954).

67 NAA: M331, 164, Cultural development Northern Territory, 17 March 1953.

68 'Doreen Braitling defends cattlemen', Centralian Advocate, 1 October 1964, p. 10.

69 NAA: F1, 1971/2435, Sub-coastal plains occupation development licences policy, May 1968.

70 NAA: A431, 1947/147, Important happenings, Northern Territory.

71 NAA: A431, 1951/203 part 1, Important happenings, Northern Territory.

72 NTAS: NTRS2500, L18 part 1, Monthly returns of important events.

Chapter 6

Cyclone Tracy, 1974


1 Published in 1984 under the title Big Blow Up North.

2 ABC radio broadcasts on 22 and 23 December reported Tracy in this way. NAA: SP1378/7, Transcripts of ABC radio reports regarding Darwin and Cyclone.

3 Report by the Director-General Natural Disasters Organisation on the Darwin Relief Operations, 25 December 1974 – 3 January 1975; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1975), volume 1, paper 21.

4 Darwin Cyclone Damage Compensation Act 1975, Report for Period 31 May to 30 June 1975, pp. 2–3; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1975), volume 1, paper 20; Report for the Year ended 30 June 1976, pp. 1–2; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1976), volume 3, paper 1.

5 NAA: A5925, Cabinet decision 3089, Cyclone Tracy overseas offers of assistance 30 December 1974.

6 Darwin Disaster Welfare Council Final Report, 1976, p. v, recommendation 4(a); CommonwealthParliamentary Papers (1976), volume 3, paper 3.

7 NAA: A5915, submission 1519, Reconstruction of the city of Darwin; decision 3092, 1974.

8 Planning Options for Future Darwin, 17 January 1975; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1975), volume 10, paper 15; Darwin Planning Guidelines, 4 March 1975; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1975), volume 10, paper 14.

9 Darwin Disaster Welfare Council Final Report, March 1976, p. 19; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1976), volume 3, paper 3.

10 Darwin Reconstruction Commission Final Report, 1979, p. 15; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1976), volume 18, paper 354.

11 NAA: F1076, 1975/101, Northern Territory Disaster Council, 1975–78.

Chapter 7

The Road to Self-Government


1 Australia. Royal Commission into Northern Territory Administration, Report, p. 4; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1920–21), volume III, pp. 1653–69.

2 NAA: A5818, volume 1/agendum 22, Northern Territory constitutional reform, 23 January 1959.

3 NAA: A3, NT1915/3868, Appointment of Board of Advice to Administrator, 1915.

4 NAA: E68, DP371, Executive and Legislation Council.

5 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, volume 127, 7 November 1930, p. 164.

6 Report on the Administration of the Northern Territory for Year 1943–44, 11 July 1944, p. 9; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1945–46), volume IV, pp. 1227–38.

7 NAA: A2700, 1224, Legislative Council, Northern Territory, 2 August 1946.

8 NAA: A2700, 1224A, Legislative Council, Northern Territory, 23 October 1946.

9 Northern Territory. Report of the Select Committee of the Legislative Council appointed to Inquire into the Necessity or Otherwise for Constitutional Reform in the Northern Territory (Darwin, 1957).

10 NAA: A5818, volume 1/agendum 22, Northern Territory constitutional reform, 23 January 1959.

11 NAA: A5818, volume 1/agendum 22, Cabinet decision 35, Northern Territory constitutional reform, 9 February 1959.

12 NAA: A5818, volume 34/agendum 1407, Northern Territory constitutional reform, 24 October 1961.

13 The report was attached to agendum 745 which Hasluck sent to Cabinet on 1 July 1953 with the title Northern Territory Constitutional Reform; NAA Canberra, A5819, volume 19/agendum 745.

14 NAA: A5827, volume 5, 159, Northern Territory – form of government, 30 April 1964. This submission contains a copy of the Interdepartmental Committee's report.

15 NAA: A5873, 658, Northern Territory – political and administrative arrangements, 3 September 1970.

16 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, volume 81, 25 October 1972, pp. 3150–59.

17 NAA: A5915, 146, Joint Committee on the Northern Territory, 28 February 1973.

18 The Committee presented an interim report in April 1974, Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1974), volume 13, paper 8, and a final report in November 1974, Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1974), volume 13, paper 9.

19 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, volume 99, 19 May 1976, pp. 2215–17.

20 Helen J Wilson, 'The Quality of Life or A Study on Municipal Functions in the Town of Darwin 1930–1946 and the Effect of the Military Build-up Therein', MA qualifying thesis, University of Queensland (1986).

21 NAA: A2694, volume 3, submission 179, Darwin Town Council Ordinance, 18 May 1932.

22 Report on the Administration of the Northern Territory for Year 1947–48, p. 5; Commonwealth ParliamentaryPapers (1948–49), volume VI, pp. 1215–40.

23 NAA: F1, 1947/337 part 2, Town Management Board meetings, minutes and general correspondence; memo dated 14 February 1949.

24 The Northern Territory Report for the Period 1st July 1949 to 30th June 1953 (Commonwealth Government Printer: Canberra, 1955), p. 11. Unlike other Northern Territory reports, this report was not published as part of the consolidated set of Parliamentary Papers.

25 NAA: NTAC1980/55, 3, Request for reports, 1951.

Australia. Joint Committee on the Northern Territory, Report on Constitutional Development, p. 8, Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1974), volume 13, paper 9.

Chapter 8

Aboriginal People of the Northern Territory


1 The terms 'half-caste', and sometimes 'quadroon and 'octoroon' were used at the time to describe a person of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal heritage. These terms appear regularly in item titles and in correspondence. They have been retained where they appear in the original item titles in accordance with the usual archival practice and because, in themselves, they give information about the attitudes of the time and the context in which the records were created.

2 Preliminary Report on the Aboriginals of the Northern Territory, Bulletin of the Northern Territory, number 7 (Melbourne, July 1913).

3 Australia. Report on the Aboriginals and Half-Castes of Central Australia and North Australia, 1928; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1929), volume II, pp. 1159–1225.

4 Australia. Commonwealth Government's Policy with respect to Aboriginals (Canberra, 1939).

5 NAA: F1,1957/367. Patrol officer E J (Ted) Egan, 27 September 1957.

6 The work of patrol officers has been described by Jeremy Long, The Go–Betweens: Patrol Officers in Aboriginal Affairs in the Northern Territory, 1936–74 (Darwin, 1992).

7 Register of Wards, Northern Territory Gazette, 19B, 13 May 1957.

8 Rowena McDonald, Between Two Worlds: The Commonwealth Government and the Removal of Aboriginal Children of Part Descent in the Northern Territory (Alice Springs, 1995), p. 53.

9 Australia. Report from the Select Committee on Voting Rights of Aboriginals, October 1961; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1961), volume II, pp. 1391–406.

10 Australia. Aboriginal Land Rights Commission, Second Report, April 1974; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1974), volume 1, paper 1, pp. 131–2.

11 NAA: A12909, submission 314, Implementation of party policy on Aboriginal land rights, May 1976.

12 Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody: Interim Report, Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1989), volume 2, paper 20; National Report, volumes 1–4, Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1991), volume 12; National Report, volume 5; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1991), volume 13.

13 Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Bringing Them Home: Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families (Sydney, 1997).

14 'Bringing Them Home': Government Initiatives: Statement tabled in Commonwealth Parliament out of session on 16 December 1997.

15 Fact Sheet 175 – Bringing Them Home name index on the National Archives' website: www.naa.gov.au.

16 See Fact Sheet 114 – Memorandum of Understanding with Northern Territory Aboriginal people; Fact Sheet 205 – Memorandum of Understanding with the Victorian Aboriginal Child Care Agency; and Fact Sheet 209 – Memorandum of Understanding with SA Indigenous people on the National Archives' website: www.naa.gov.au

17 National Archives of Australia, Tracking Families (Canberra, 2006).

Chapter 9

Primary Industries


1 The history of the Lands and Survey Branches in the Northern Territory has been researched by Geoffrey Helyar, They Led the Way: A Short Account of the Lands and Survey Department of the Northern Territory, 1869–1978 (Darwin, 1990).

2 The history of the pastoral industry in the Commonwealth era has been researched by the author in his PhD thesis, Edward Ling, 'Blame and Martyrs: The Commonwealth Government's Administration of the Northern Territory's Pastoral Industry, 1911–1978', Charles Darwin University (2010).

3 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, volume 103, Senate, 13 July 1923, pp. 1089–90.

4 Northern Territory Report of the Administrator for the Year ended 30th June 1923, p. 16; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1923–24), volume IV, pp. 1909–35.

5 NAA: A2700, volume 14, submission 792, NT medical and veterinary services, 14 February 1945.

6 NTAS: F1439, 1950/143, Organisation and establishment Animal Industry Section.

7 In December 1951 Rose prepared a document that summarised veterinary services in the Territory both before and after the establishment of the Animal Industry Branch; NAA Darwin: F1, 1951/747 part 2, Cattle industry Northern Territory.

8 NAA: A452, 1956/149, Crown Lands Ordinances Northern Territory, 20 January 1960.

9 Northern Territory. Inquiry into Pastoral Land Tenure in the Northern Territory (Darwin, October 1980).

10 The history of agriculture in the Northern Territory has been researched by Ian Hillock, 'Rethinking Colonial Endeavour in relation to Agricultural Settlement in the Northern Territory, 1863–1945: A Critical Perspective', PhD thesis, Charles Darwin University (2005).

11 Northern Territory Annual Report of the Acting Administrator for the Year ended 30th June 1920, pp. 14–15; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1920–21), volume III, pp. 1689–768.

12 Northern Territory Report of Administrator for the Year ended 30th June 1924, pp. 24–5; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1925), volume II, pp. 2535–62.

13 Prospects of Agriculture in the Northern Territory, Report of the Forster Committee (Canberra, 1960), p. 17.

14 NAA: A5827, volume 4/agendum119, Northern Territory establishment of farms on leases held by Adelaide River Limited, 6 April 1964. Cabinet approved the submission on 23 April 1964.

15 NAA: A5841, 173, Northern Territory pilot farms Marrakai, 2 May 1966. Cabinet approved the submission on 12 May 1966.

16 NAA: A12909, 1073, Northern Territory Marrakai pilot farms, 28 February 1977.

17 Beverley Margaret Sydney James Phelts, 'Water and the Economic Development of the Northern Territory, 1824–2000', PhD thesis, Charles Darwin University (2005).

18 NAA: A659, 1942/1/7640, Northern Territory – water bores on stock routes.

19 The 1911 figure was provided by George Pearce in a speech to Parliament; Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, Senate, volume XCIX, 12 July 1922, p. 308. The 1939 figure was provided by Phelts, 'Water and the Economic Development of the Northern Territory', p. 85.

20 NAA: E125, 1976/1251, Boring and stock routes Northern Territory history.

21 Australia. Board of Inquiry appointed to Inquire into the Land and Land Industries of the Northern Territory of Australia, Report, p. 18, paragraph 92; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1937–40), volume III, pp.813–925.

22 NAA: A2700, volume 24, submission 1093, Bores on stock routes, 27 February 1946.

23 NAA: A4905, 267, Drought relief – Northern Territory pastoral industry, 1 May 1952.

24 A brief history of this branch will be found in Northern Territory. Water Resources History Committee. WaterResources Forty Years On, A History of the Northern Territory Water Resources Division (Darwin, 1998). 25 NTAS: NTRS2500, L506 part 3, Pastoral leases general, 1973.

Chapter 10

Customs, Immigration and Population


1 NAA: A1, 1911/16191, Northern Territory taking of the census, 1911.

2 Australian Bureau of Statistics website; www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS (accessed 3 January 2011).

3 Northern Territory Report of the Acting Administrator for the Year 1911, p. 15; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1912), volume III, pp. 595–652.

Chapter 11

Works and Housing


1 Northern Territory housing has been researched by Whitehead and Dewar: Jan Whitehead, 'Settling Down: The Role of Housing in the Commonwealth's Northern Territory', PhD thesis, Charles Darwin University (2007); Mickey Dewar, Darwin – No Place like Home: A History of Australia's Northern Capital in the 1950s through a Study of Housing (Darwin, 2010).

2 NAA: F1, 1951/1012, Proposed housing schemes Northern Territory, 6 November 1951.

3 NAA: A4926, 1156, Northern Territory–housing for persons other than government employees.

4 Jan Whitehead, 'Settling Down', p. 260.

5 Mickey Dewar, Darwin – No Place Like Home

6 Jan Whitehead, 'Settling Down'.

7 NAA: F1, 1950/591, Stock routes and bores, general.

8 Report on the Administration of the Northern Territory for Year 1948–49, p. 3, Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1950–51), volume II, pp. 835–58.

Chapter 12

Law and Order


1 The history of the Northern Territory Police has been researched by Bill Wilson, 'A Force Apart', PhD thesis, Northern Territory University (Darwin, 2000).

2 NAA: A238, Draft handbook of the Northern Territory compiled by Staniforth Smith, Acting Administrator, 1921, p. 39.

3 Supreme Court Ordinance 1911, s4.

4 See agency description for CA 1304, Clerk of Courts, 1924-1950 on RecordSearch for further details.

5 See agency description for CA 885, Crown Law Office, 1928-1974 on RecordSearch for further details.

6 Australia. Royal Commission of Inquiry into Chamberlain Convictions, Report, p. 342; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1987), volume 15, paper 192.

Chapter 13

Social Services – Health, Education and Welfare


1 Ellen Kettle, 'History of Northern Territory Health Services', 1985, (www.ntl.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_ file/0003/25194/Kettle_HistoryNTHealthServ.pdf (accessed 9 January 2011).

2 Report on the Administration of the Northern Territory for the Year ended 30th June 1935, p. 5.

3 Ellen Kettle, Op cit, p. 11.

4 Northern Territory Report of the Administrator for the Year 1914–15, p. 76; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1914–17), volume II, pp. 1411–501.

5 Northern Territory Annual Report of the Acting Administrator for the Year ended 30th June 1920, p. 66; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1920), volume III, pp. 1689–768.

6 Education Ordinance 5 of 1917, ss 3–4.

7 A brief history of education in the Northern Territory is provided in 'The Northern Territory Report for 1959–60', pp. 40–41; Parliamentary Papers (1961), volume IV, pp. 617–746.

8 NAA: F1, 1965/2663, Education Board.

9 See agency description for CA 1076, NT Welfare Branch, by 1955–70 on RecordSearch for further details

10 See agency description for CA 6571, Welfare Branch, Northern Territory Administration, Adelaide, by 1963–72 on RecordSearch for further details.

11 See agency description for CA 2835, NT Welfare Division, 1970–72 on RecordSearch for further details.

Chapter 14

Environment


1 Bureau of Meteorology website: www.bom.gov.au/nt/rsmc (accessed 8 January 2011).

2 Australia. Ranger Uranium Environmental Inquiry, Second Report, May 1977; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1977), volume 6, paper 117.

3 Report on the Administration of the Northern Territory for Year 1943–44, pp. 6 and 9; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1945–46), volume IV, pp. 1227–38.

Chapter 15

Other Administrative Functions


1 Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, number 110, 28 December 1922, p. 2802.

2 Northern Territory, Annual Report of the Acting Administrator for the Year ended 30th June 1920, p. 3.

Chapter 16

Territory Personalities


1 Report of his First Overland Tour in a Motor Car, Bulletin of the Northern Territory, number 5 (Melbourne, January 1913).

Chapter 17

Evaluation of the Commonwealth Era


1 Ian Hillock, 'Rethinking Colonial Endeavour in relation to Agricultural Settlement in the Northern Territory, 1863–1945: A Critical Perspective', PhD thesis, Charles Darwin University (2005), pp. x, xvii.

2 Report on the Administration of the Northern Territory for Year 1948–49, p. 3; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1950–51), volume II, pp. 835–58.

3 Northern Territory Report of the Administrator for the Year 1914–15, p. 5; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1914–17), volume II, pp. 1411–501.

4 NAA: CP764/2, Report on the administration of the Northern Territory by J A Carrodus, 1934, pp. 8–9.

5 Australia. Board of Inquiry appointed to Inquire into the Land and Land Industries of the Northern Territory of Australia, Report, Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1937–40), volume III, pp. 813–925; the maxims were printed opposite page 66.

6 NAA: A3934, item SC42/25, Executive Commission, 1923.

7 L A Riddett, Kine, Kin and Country: The Victoria River District of the Northern Territory, 1911–1966 (Darwin, 1990), p. 32.

8 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, Senate, volume 103, 18 July 1923, p. 1220.

9 Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, volume 112, 10 February 1926, p. 821.

10 Report on the Administration of the Northern Territory for Year 1948–49, p. 3; Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers (1950–51), volume II, pp. 835–58.

11 'The case for separation – cross section of opinions', Centralian Advocate, 10 November 1950, p. 3.

12 Peter John Elder, 'Charles Lydiard Aubrey Abbott: Countryman or Colonial Governor', PhD thesis, Northern Territory University (1998), p. 200.

13 NAA: F1, 1962/2061, Pastoral leases policy [part 2], 24 September 1964.

14 NTAS: NTRS2821, Land Classification Board] Minute book, 16 December 1913.

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